ISSUE 5 / 2015


  • Józef Porayski-Pomsta : Language development standard in ontogenesis against the correctness standard of the Polish language
    This paper discusses the relation between the language development standard in ontogenesis and the language standard taken into consideration when evaluating the child’s language development level. The author provides a synthetic description of the language development standard in ontogenesis, presents general conditions for the child’s language development and, on this basis, claims that the child’s communication and language development level should be evaluated in the first place, in particular as regards young childhood (1-3 years of age) and middle childhood (3-7 years of age), based on a comparison with language use of the closest social environment of the child. Including the language standard as the basis for determining linguistic and communication competence of the child to the research carried out to date is based on tradition and arises from the fact that the research has usually been case studies, the research has covered children from educated families, and it has been silently assumed that the child acquires the cultural (standard) variant of language from the beginning, which is not true in numerous cases.
  • Marlena Kurowska : Prognosis of speech and language development in children with disorders conditioned on damage and/or dysfunctions of the central nervous system

    This paper presents the level of speech and language acquisition by two children with brain-related developmental disorders. Such children, despite proper physical hearing as well as cognitive and emotional and social development, have difficulties acquiring speech and language spontaneously and naturally from the beginning of their development. These are children with alalia type disorders, with speech underdevelopment of cortical origin (with aphasic type speech underdevelopment). I make a comparison of the speech and language development level recorded in the case of such children at the beginning of the process of therapy and later at its various stages. My intention is to present changes in the tested children’s linguistic competence development based on the collected linguistic material.

    In the case where disorders of cortical origin have been found, the prognosis of speech and language development depends on various factors. It is always a process where the mutual influence of the disintegration mechanism and proper speech development is visible.

  • Stanisław Milewski, Katarzyna Kaczorowska-Bray : Logopaedic aspects of language acquisition by blind children
    This paper discusses the difficulties encountered by blind children at individual developmental stages of their verbal and non-verbal communication. Attention is drawn to large differences in the descriptions found in the literature concerning speech development and potential problems in this area recorded among children.
  • Barbara Boniecka : The issues of ludicity in children’s texts

    In the presented examples, the extraordinariness of children’s utterances consists in confusion of what results from poor reception with what the child knows thoroughly, in certain “cunningness” and a conviction that another person (the listener/receiver) does not know about the strategy chosen by the child, and finally in unfamiliarity with meanings of the presented words in the context used by the child.

    It should be noted that, from the viewpoint of some researchers, children make mistakes here. I believe, however, that due to the fact that children create language unconsciously and that they are at the stage of language acquisition and improvement, children cannot be accused of irregularities, since they do not yet know all systemic and communicative irregularities. Their utterances simply amuse listeners although children do not know why.

  • Olga Jauer-Niworowska : Interdisciplinary analysis of utterance formation and realisation processes in the structural functionalist model
    This paper touches upon the issues of psychological and neuropsychological considerations of the utterance formation process. Referring to classical studies and contemporary psycholinguistic and neuropsychological approaches, the author describes linguistic behaviours of adult language users. She explains the role of cognitive, emotional and motor functions in regulating various aspects of the utterance formation and realisation process.
  • Ewa Wolańska : Disorders of linguistic functions in dementia-related diseases and conditions. The role and goals of logopaedics of the elderly
    The initial part of this paper presents the clinical picture of selected dementia-related diseases and conditions, with particular consideration given to language disorders. The specificity of speech and language disorders in Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Pick’s disease and primary progressive aphasia is discussed. The second part of this paper presents the challenges to be faced soon by logopaedics of the elderly, called gerontologopaedics. Currently, ca. 450–500 thousand people suffer from dementia, including ca. 300–350 thousand individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. It is estimated that ca. 1.2 million Poles will suffer from the disease in 2035. Practice proves that speech therapy makes sense in the case of dementia-related diseases and conditions. Despite the undoubtedly difficult therapeutic situation – which arises from adverse prognosis, frequent lack of motivation in the patient, etc. – therapeutic activities oriented towards broadly defined communicative activation of the patient should be taken. This is because they increase the patient’s chances for preserving his or her linguistic and cognitive skills at a relatively high level. Yet, the state is not prepared for ensuring institutional care to the group of patients, which enlarges year after year.
  • Danuta Pluta-Wojciechowska : Diffi culties in articulating Polish sounds by foreigners
    The author discusses pronunciation difficulties faced by foreigners learning Polish as a foreign language. She points to the effects of incorrect pronunciation of Polish sounds, which is observable in foreigners learning Polish as a second language (L2). She notices that the cause of the difficulties may be not only considerations related to factors concerning the language acquired earlier but also the ones related to biological factors. They can interrelate in a number of manners and hamper or prevent formation of sounds being realisations of Polish phonemes to varying extents.




  • Przemysław Wiatrowski : Anna Piotrowicz, Słownictwo pism Stefana Żeromskiego (Vocabulary of the works by Stefan Żeromski), volume 16: Życie towarzyskie (Social Life), Poznań 2014