ISSUE 6 / 2016


  • Piotr Zbróg : The continuity and change in the codifi ed language standard in the past century

    This paper presents selected types of changes which have occurred in the codified language standard over the past hundred years. They are described based on the material excerpted from dictionaries of proper language use beginning with Słowniczek błędów językowych... (Mini dictionary of language errors…) by A. Passendorfer (1904), and ending with Wielki słownik poprawnej polszczyzny PWN (PWN great dictionary of proper use of Polish) (2004). A part of the analysed material has been selected systematically and a part of it has been excerpted at random.

    The material has been classified into specific subgroups – from examples illustrating insignificant changes in the codified standard to units representing almost revolutionary transformations occurring there (a form which used to be correct, e.g.

  • dożywotny (lifelong)
  • , has become incorrect today, whereas the incorrect one, e.g. dożywotni, has become the standard one). A background against which the changes are presented are the units for which the prescriptive guidelines have remained the same in the examined period.

  • Eliza Czerwińska : Stylistic exponents of incommunicativeness of official texts

    The object of the paper is an analysis of stylistic exponents of uncommunicativeness of official texts. The research carried out on this variant of the Polish language to date have usually described, analysed and explained linguistic phenomena from the cultural and linguistic perspective. This approach does not fully explain which features of the official style determine its incomprehensibility. The resolution of this issue is facilitated by the attempt made in this paper in order to answer the question of the extent to which the official style meets the criteria of a communicative style, the canons of which include: clarity, simplicity, conciseness, dynamics, specificity, constructiveness, and appropriateness.

    As follows from the analysis, there are phenomena in the official language that are the opposite of the features enumerated above. They include i.a.: logical and grammatical incoherence of paragraphs and sentences, expanded single and compound statements, analytical structures and linguistic conventions, impersonal verb forms and no personal subject, abstract nouns, genitive series, nominalisation and errors in the text structure. Such properties arise to a large extent from typical features of the official style.

  • Barbara Sobczak : Standards of politeness and changes in public (not only) language behaviour
    The paper takes up the issue of violating politeness standards in public speeches of politicians. Politeness strategies depend on the intentions of the sender and the circumstances accompanying a particular interaction. They are therefore determined by their purpose and rhetorical situation. An analysis of selected examples of public discourse demonstrates that intentional violations of the principles of politeness, notably regarding the approval and kindness for the partner, showing the desire to be in their company and increasing their self-esteem, serve two functions. Firstly, they are part of the politicians' image strategy; secondly, they make the message more attractive and ensure politicians presence in the media. They can therefore be useful from the viewpoint of individual public actors. However, the negative consequence of breaking the rules of social politeness publicly involves loosening the standards and values governing people’s lives both as a community and as individuals. The limit of permitted behaviours has shifted and fewer things are considered shocking. And the lack of reference points means that there is no certainty as to what rules should be followed.
  • Iwona Sołtys : Pronunciation standard. Teaching challenges.
    This paper presents an attempt at analysing phenomena regarding changes in the pronunciation standard from the teaching viewpoint. It discusses basic problems involved in the speech technique and pronunciation errors made by students of acting. The research aimed at presenting the current status of the standard from the perspective of the current transformations of the Polish language. The auditory method was applied in the analysis.
  • Jolanta Szpyra-Kozłowska : Language-internal mechanisms of phonological adaptation of English loanwords into Polish
    The paper is dedicated to an analysis of languageinternal factors which have an impact on the phonological adaptation of English loanwords into Polish, an issue that has so far either been neglected or superficially approached in the relevant literature. The author discusses first phonological factors, such as similarities and differences between native and foreign sound and phoneme inventory, phonological conditioning of phoneme substitutions, the role of phonotactic constraints and phonological processes of Polish in the assimilation of Anglicisms. Next, the impact of various morphological and lexical determinants of the phenomenon in question is examined. It is shown that the mechanisms behind some adaptations involve pressure from the inflectional and derivational systems for loan stems to end in consonants, membership of borrowings in some lexico-semantic word classes (common vs proper nouns) and phonological levelling within the same morphemes. Ample evidence is provided for the above types of dependencies.