Paweł Rutkowski : Numerals as Functional Elements in Sentence Derivation
The main aim of this article is to present a formal analysis of the syntax of cardinal numerals in Polish. In the model of nominal phrase structure adopted in the present paper, Polish Q-numerals are described as functional elements residing in a functional phrase projected between NP and DP. Q-numerals assign genitive case to the following noun only in structural case contexts. In other contexts, the whole nominal complex agrees in case. Following Emonds (2000) and Veselovská (2001), it is argued that this pattern of case assignment results from the fact that functional elements are inserted into the syntactic derivation at a relatively late stage. This means that they are not present in the deep structure of a sentence, where inherent case is assigned. Consequently, Q-numerals can only realise their case government in structural case contexts. This analysis concerns not only numerals but also structures with certain words indicating approximation, and the word coś (something). The apparatus of generative syntax employed in the paper allows the linguist to analyse certain well-known facts in a new way. Many theoretical assumptions presented here may also be used in non-generative analyses. Suggestions with respects to certain terminological problems were an additional aim of the article.
Anna Giemza : Evaluation of the Reality in the Social Dialect of Drug Addicts
The article focuses on the vocabulary of evaluation in the social dialect of drug addicts. The author divides in into vocabulary concerning: 1. vital values (life supporting activities, hedonist ones), 2. emotional values, 3. moral values, 4. values of conventions. From the analysis of the values selected from the drug addicts' vocabulary she reckons that consumers of euphoria causing and hallucinating chemicals use a different axiological system.
Dorota Połowniak-Wawrzonek : ECONOMIC ACTIONS ARE AN ARMED STRUGGLE Metaphor in Polish Phraseology
The article presents one of the most important aspects of the metaphoric character of text concerning economy - describing 'economic actions' as 'armed struggle'. This aspect shows clearly in Polish phraseology. It would prove the fact that expressions are a special school of metaphorical thinking, whereas phraseology remains in a close relationship with life of the society which uses a given language.
Ireneusz Hyrnik : Basic Terminology of the Area of Gymnastics and Its Origins in Polish and Czech...
Present Polish and Czech gymnastic terminology has its origin in the 19th century of M. Tyrš terminology. Tyrš was a founder of the national organisation "Sokol" which popularized physical exercises. He developed the terminology of German system of exercising, but kept Czech morphology strictly. When the idea of "Sokol" spread in Poland, especially in the region of Galicja, vocabulary related to physical exercises was borrowed. We can find many borrowed and translated terms in gymnastic terminology from Czech at present.