Jolanta Maćkiewicz : Derivation and Metonymic Perception of the World (Based on Plant Metonymy in Polish, English, French and Spanish)
The author of the article examines how metonymization can manifest in derivation processes. To do so, she compares realization of selected notion models associated with plants in Polish, English, French and Spanish. As the analysis reveals, the same metonymic realization can be expressed in various ways, identified in the paper, the choice of which is determined mostly by grammatical pattern of a given language, particularly by ways of nomination, which are predominant in each of the languages under discussion. Moreover, the differences may result from discrepancies in the structure of notion models, determined by differences in culture and experience. They may as well result from connection of a given model with other ones and from profile differences within the model. Apparently, there are no metonymic relations only reduced to derivates.
Przemysław Wiatrowski : The Sender and the Recipient in Informal Letters of John Paul II to Marek and Zofia Skwarnicki
Among numerous works devoted to Karol Wojtyła's writings, very few deal with their linguistic shape. The article presents linguistic determinants of the sender and the recipient in 110 letters of John Paul II to Marek and Zofia Skwarnicki. Both the sender and the recipient manifest themselves in conventional ways, by appropriate verb forms (with occasional reference shifts), personal pronouns, possessive adjectives and occasional plurals. Other determinants are: names, sometimes accompanied by additional adjectives, names usually preceded by lexemes Pan, Pani (Mr., Mrs.), first names followed by surnames, official forms Pan, Państwo, Pański (Polish formal, elegant ways of addressing) and descriptive structures. The denoted units often add information about the author's emotional attitude and allow defining the pope's model of politeness.
Józef Jaworski : The Lexeme wolność (Freedom) in Publicist Insurrection Texts (1794)
The analyzed lexeme features in the text of the main insurrection slogan: wolność - całość - niepodległość (freedom - wholeness - independence). In the situation of lost independence, freedom was the superior value for the Polish, evoking specific emotions and motivating to the uprising. Publicists of those times connected the idea of freedom with Christian principles of faith, religion and the Church. Freedom was often the object of metaphors. The lexeme was confirmed in numerous sentences as well.
Wioletta Orlińska : Selected Aspects of the Evolution of Advertising Texts in Poland in the Years 1990-2001. Elements of Rhetoric Persuasion in Advertisements. A Diachronic Analysis
The author examines the development of the language of advertising texts from the years 1990-2001 using selected newspapers and TV in three aspects connected with rhetorical persuasion. These are addressing forms, imperatives and the use of personal authority. The empirical text analysis shows changes in the frequency of their occurrence, which lead to conclusions concerning the development of advertising techniques in Poland.
Joanna Wierzchowska : Historical - Linguistic Semantic Analysis of Using the Word wylew (Overflow) As Andrzej Towiański's Idiolect Unit (Based on 2 Selected Texts from his Pisma - Writings Part II)
The article aims at presenting semantic organization of a specific type of texts, namely romantic and mystical Andrzej Towiański's metaphors. It analyses the way Towiański uses an expressive language code, based on the example of phrases wylew duszy (the overflow of soul) and wylew ognia (the overflow of fire). The linguistic analysis of the two shows contradictions in romantic vision of the world. The notion Towiański's enthusiasm acquires a specific language structure.
Dorota Połowniak-Wawrzonek : Military Metaphors Defining the Notions of miłość (Love) and zaloty (Coquetry)
The metaphor LOVE (as relations between partners in a relationship) IS AN ARMED STRUGGLE is clearly shown in Polish phraseology; rarely is shown the metaphor COQUETRY IS AN ARMED STRUGGLE (still in use in the 19th century). Social changes were reflected in language - women had become independent and equivalent as partners to men. In love (between a woman and a man), like in an armed struggle, the element of a competition appears. Its aim is to dominate the partner.
Anna Żurek : How do Foreigners Greet in Polish?
The article is devoted to the explanation how greetings are expressed by non-native speakers of Polish language. The instrument used in the study was a discourse-completion test (DCT), developed for researching the speech act realization of second language learners. The investigations were performed in Poland and abroad among students from various European countries. In the paper the different greeting formulae were presented and analyzed. Additionally, the second goal of the study is an answer if greetings of second language learners convey politeness value according to Polish rules of politeness.