As the survey carried out in the years 2006–2008 reveals, first-year university students of Polish Philology are not familiar with a number of linguistic terms and have not mastered certain linguistic skills, which results in their difficulties with learning grammatical syllabus at the first year of their studies. The respondents are frequently unable to distinguish an inflectional subject and a morphological one, an inflectional ending and a suffix, parts of speech and parts of sentences. They cannot make an inflectional analysis and a morphological one. In their view, a formant is either a suffix or a prefix, while a verb is just a synthetic structure. They cannot distinguish clearly polysemy and homonymy. Their knowledge of orthography and punctuation is not full. Some of their difficulties with spelling and inflection of names are quite frequent and typical in contemporary times.
Thus the author of the article finds it essential to pay more attention to make sure that university freshmen acquire the command of some basic linguistic notions and abilities, e.g. by introducing additional exercises or classes on school grammar.
The main research subject presented in the article concerns conceptualization of a fragment of the closest space (the way from home to kindergarten) registered in the utterances of kindergarten children. The author analyzed expressions children use to describe the near-far relation. She also gathered linguistic phrases they use to compare distance. The aim of the research was to solve practical problems, while conclusions from vocabulary analysis can help to make exercising material to enrich their space related vocabulary.
As the research shows, toddlers use distance relations and apply vocabulary defining closeness and getting farther, while metrical estimation and comparison also occur in the semantic level of the utterances.
One hundred and twenty children from four Wrocław kindergartens took part in the research, carried out by the author of the article in the years 2002–2005 (used in her doctorate). While gathering material, she considered the age and gender of the children, whereas the analyzed data are children’s utterances about the way from home to kindergarten. In her analysis, she applied various methods: philological, statistic and cognitive.