It is assumed in the history of language that the main phase of influences of the Turkish-Tatar languages is the 16th and 17th centuries. They were caused by linguistic and cultural contacts the background of which was largely political and military. The influences are indirect borrowings (through the medium of the Ruthenian languages, the Hungarian language, and the German language) or direct ones. An example of the latter is the Turkicism sandżak ‘an administrator of a district in the Ottoman Empire, a military commander’, which – as a result of adaptation processes – was equated with the original Polish form sędziak, constituting an interesting example of lexical heterogenic homonymy.
The aim of the research was to performs a stylistic analysis of poems titled Dobrego zdrowia rządzenie (The regimen of health) published in Kalendarz Jatrologisty i Filoartysty na rok 1725 (Calendar of Iatrologist and Philoartist for 1725) and identify cultural references as exponents of style and manners of linguistic imaging. The selected research instrument was the cognitive text analysis model [Tabakowska, 2005]. Motifs of the mediaeval iconography of constellations accompanying the signs of the zodiac, hygienic, nutrition and medical advice drawn from Regimen sanitatis and forecasts related to the astronomical and natural year were found in the 18th-century poems for individual months. The structure of the images of “monthly works” is based on conceptual integration. The threads concerned with microcosm and macrocosm, linked with the astral ideology, were integrated and transformed. The long-term activity of the connections enabled specification of a new meaning. A new logic applies in the poems: the monthly works are performed by personified signs of the zodiac / months; cultural elements coming from court and nobility mores are introduced.
This paper is a continuation of a cycle dedicated to the description of the share of borrowings in the vocabulary of Rozprawy literackie (Literary treaties) by M. Mochnacki. The author discusses the issue of influences of other foreign languages (mainly from: English, Czech, Russian, Turkish, Ukrainian, Hungarian, Italian) by, among others, indicating the methods of adaptation of the discussed borrowings to Polish, confirming their occurrence in lexicographic sources of the epoch, and carrying out a semantic analysis of the vocabulary with the use of lexical and semantic fields. Based on the presented material, the researcher ascertains that, in the diachronic profile, the presented material illustrates two periods of acquiring new lexical units to the Polish language: until the end of the 18th c. and the turn and the beginning of the 19th c. Moreover, the author states that the discussed lexical resource is not innovative as the lexemes derived from the enumerated languages, which are used by M. Mochnacki, belong to the standard variant of the 19th-century Polish language.
The conducted analysis falls into the stream of research dedicated to the lexis of the 19th-century language.
A human has been perceived as ‘someone good’ since the oldest times in the history of the Polish language. Obviously, the understanding of the lexeme referred primarily to the ‘human being’ but at the same time there was a close relation between the human and a value. This has been so to this date, which is evidenced by numerous idiomatised expressions. The consequence of understanding the human as a ‘valuable being’ is the expressions contained in the title: stać się człowiekiem (to become a human) and przestać być człowiekiem (to stop being a human). This paper presents an analysis of the contexts in which these and similar expressions are found and the aim was to outline the typical situations when the human, so to say, becomes clothed in the value and ones when he or she loses it. A syncretic methodological approach was adopted – the tools of historical semantics, structuralism and linguistic pragmatics as well as cognitive linguistics and linguistic worldview were applied. Finally, English-language contexts, which are characterised by a close relation with the understanding of a human as a value in Polish, are presented for the sake of comparison.
An attempt to apply the lexicographic terminology and methodology with reference to a dialectal material is made in this paper. There are three types of dialectal homonymy distinguished in the Poznań and agricultural dialectal lexis: