Anita Lorenc : Refl ections on the principles of teaching modern phonetics of the Polish language
Due to the complex interdisciplinary nature of
modern phonetic sciences and the development of
individual fields of phonetics, it is important to reinterpret
some of its crucial aspects. There is still a large collection
of phenomena related to the production and perception of
speech, which results in the occurrence of certain
ambiguous interpretations of phonetic facts and
controversies between phonetics and phonology. On their
basis, articulatory phonology has been established since
the mid-1980s. This proposal, regarding the abstract
articulatory gesture with the tools enabling the
investigation of articulation as a process (EMA systems),
is particularly attractive since it allows a holistic approach
to the speech sounds system due to the close relationship
between articulation, the image of the speech wave and
in particular the mental processes of its reception by
the listener. This is important for the phoneticians who
teach the pronunciation of individual languages within
broadly defined glottodidactics, as well as for speech
therapists, who are trained in listening skills at the
phonetic (speech sounds) level during classes in the socalled
Jolanta Panasiuk : A model of describing interactions with people suffering from aphasia.
The object of this paper is a description of interaction
with ill people – ones experiencing speech disorders, called
aphasia in the relevant literature, as a result of damage
to the central nervous system. The characteristics of the
interaction in which people with aphasia take part involves
a specific use of three elements: a) a verbalised (text,
pathological text) or non-verbal message; b) an utterance
about a message (a metatext in two functions: organising
the message and defining the meaning of the verbal and
non-verbal signs used); c) the sender’s and the recipient’s
knowledge of textual and extratextual considerations of
interaction (textual, linguistic and situational contexts).
The adoption of an interactive approach in research on
aphasia permitted the dynamic approach to three
categories: text, metatext and context. Cognitive and
communicative abilities of people with aphasia were proved
through the discovery of the rules of transformation of
these categories in the course of interaction.
Marta Korendo : Asperger Syndrome – early symptoms of the disorder in social, linguistic, motor and cognitive spheres.
The diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome has caused
many problems for diagnosticians and therapists since the
establishment of this nosological unit. Many concepts of
rules and criteria for assessing the functioning of people
with AS have been born. The increase in the number of
cases of children with Asperger Syndrome indicates the
need to create effective ways of making early diagnoses,
which can become the basis for building effective therapy
The authors point to the necessity to observe early
stages of children’s development and to notice the
symptoms of the disorder. This is often possible for
children aged under 24 months. After the child reaches the
age of two, the symptoms become very evident, especially
in the areas of language and communication, social
development, cognitive and manual development.
Ewa Wolańska : Language communication disorders in the classical form of Alzheimer’s disease and in its atypical variants.
This paper provides detailed characteristics of
language communication disorders in the classical, i.e.
amnestic variant of Alzheimer’s disease – late-onset, and
the main contemporarily distinguished atypical variants
of AD, such as: the logopenic variant of Alzheimer’s disease
(LvAD), the visual variant of Alzheimer’s disease (VvAD),
the apraxic variant of Alzheimer’s disease (AvAD), and the
frontal variant of Alzheimer’s disease (FvAD). It also points
to the lack of appropriate standardised scales useful
for assessing linguistic and communicative functions in
Polish-speaking patients. A postulate for a proper
adaptation of such tools was made with respect to texts
created in a foreign cultural and linguistic tradition.
The adaptation would include: 1) cultural adaptation, that
is adaptation of cultural scripts (behaviour patterns),
which influence the shape and dynamics of
communication; 2) linguistic adaptation, which allows
for the system properties of the Polish language;
3) normalisation, which permits the identification of the
relations between the results obtained with the use of
the tool and the average results in a given population;
4) confirmation research, which provides for selected
variables, such as gender, age or education of the subjects.
Marlena Kurowska : Methods of foregrounding the correct semantic, sound and articulatory, and grammatical structure of words in children with cortical speech and language disorders.
One of the characteristic symptoms of speech and
language disorders arising from anatomical injuries and/or
CNS dysfunctions is the difficulty in foregrounding the
correct form of words. In the process of rehabilitation of
children with cortical disorders, it is necessary to take
special measures to elicit utterances. This study presents
methods permitting easier and quicker recollection of the
expected semantic, sound and articulatory, and
grammatical form of a word in a given context.
Marzena Stępień : A project of a dictionary for tools of communication for adults with neurogenic speech disorders.
It is extremely important for the disabled people who
have serious difficulties communicating in a phonic
language to be able to interact with the environment. The
tools and aids available on the market are, however, often
beyond an individual user’s financial capacity or are not
adapted to the needs of adults. This paper presents
the principles for selecting vocabulary to match tools
serving the purpose of augmentative and alternative
communication as well as the vocabulary and rules for its
combination in utterances, which should be introduced
at the first, initial, stage of implementing this means of
communication. The excerpted vocabulary will be
applicable mainly in the case of people with major
limitations of communication, who have not used such
tools yet (AAC systems) and who have required such
a support since recently and as a result of an emergency.