Teresa Skubalanka : Comments on the poetic style of Czesław Miłosz
The author revises the most important conclusions included in her works on the language and style of the poetry by Czesław Miłosz compiled thus far. She considers a certain language realism, simplicity and specificity of wording, richness of stylising depictions, which go hand in hand with profound lyricism and explicitness of the word, as the most significant features of this style. In the presented article slightly more attention is given to the analysis of song poems and the poem titled Świat [The World].
Danuta Ostaszewska : Between the fact and universal sense – on linguistic contrasts concealed in the poetry by Czesław Miłosz
The article presents a reconstruction of a fragment of the linguistic image of the reality depicted in poems by Czesław Miłosz during a specific period – his poetic writings of the 1970s and the 1980s was analysed.
In the volumes from that period, which are significant in the whole literary output of the writer, no dejection is to be found. The poems allow discovering a human immersed in the entire beauty of the perceived world, and on the other hand, to noticing the poet concentrated on universal notions, which touch upon philosophical aspects of being with its material indicators manifested in the details of the observed and remembered reality. What always accompanies the creation of the world is judging, which not only enriches the knowledge related to the described world but also is its crucial element which permits grasping the holistic perspective through which phenomena and objects were perceived and interpreted by the subject.
Urszula Sokólska : The Miłosz’s space of the nature
The article is devoted to constructing the space of the nature in the poetry by Czesław Miłosz. Various combinations and mutual correlations of individual components of space, which manifest themselves in the form of spatial systems of the realities, which as nature components, as well as of numerous lexical components, which display the category of space and communicate the content related thereto, including the names of landscape items, plant items, animal world items, the universe, diverse spatial categories, etc. are taken into account in the description of such space. What is also emphasised is interesting semantic entanglements of the employed „landscape” lexis, with use of which the poet describes the spatial relations between the components, describes the physical states of the object, enumerates characteristic features of the object or parts thereof, introduces the practical or aesthetic evaluation of the object, and interprets the nature’s components in terms of their emotive, allegorical or symbolic functions.
Krzysztof Maćkowiak : Stylistic shape of Piosenka o końcu świata [Song about the End of the World] by Czesław Miłosz in the context of the discussion on the form of contemporary poetry
The thesis assuming that originality is one of the constitutive indicators of artistry sounds trivial. The manifestation of the mentioned attitude is to be found also in the most recent poetry. Its form ceases to be an instrument of interpersonal communication. The dominant type of imagery leads, in turn, to the situation where poems often change into asemantic „series of sounds”. Do we have another type of poetic discourse at our disposal? The analysis of Piosenka o końcu świata [Song about the End of the World], one of the most popular texts by Miłosz, undoubtedly confirms the foregoing statement. The poem dignifies the simplicity of message, which was intended. Moreover, it surprises with its ascetic form. Numerous sentences of Piosenka read in separation sound „as if they were taken out from a reading primer”. The author of Zniewolony umysł [The Captive Mind] may teach successive generations of writers to approach speech with economy and humility. Readers, in turn, are given the hope that interaction with modern poetry does not always mean being exposed to „męki wyższego rzędu” [preeminent torment] (Ars poetica?).
Stanisław Dubisz : The tradition of the verse art in the translation of Księga psalmów [The Book of Psalms] by Czesław Miłosz
The translation of Księga psalmów [The Book of Psalms] by Czesław Miłosz comprises the whole translation tradition – Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Old Polish, Middle Polish and contemporary Polish texts. The poet strives to create a new language which, on the one hand, would be communicative and transparent for the contemporary recipient, and on the other hand, render the hieraticism and specific senses of the sacred text in accordance with the tradition of the Mediterranean culture. This is reflected in careful wording and improving the structure of verse as a basic semantic and syntactic unit of the psalm. The verse technique was realised by Miłosz in a large number of poems, who sought artistic models in the Biblical language. Therefore, his translation of Księga psalmów may be described as philological and artistic.