ISSUE 8 / 2019


  • Adam Pawłowski : The linguistic landscape of today’s Poland: Polish, foreign languages, minority languages
    The situation of contemporary Polish is good. The language develops steadily in favourable legal, educational, scientific, and technological environments. The greatest language changes in Poland after 1945 include unprecedented standardisation of the public language. The situation of very few minority languages does not give rise to controversies. The command of foreign languages (particularly English) is increasingly better, which might result in revival of multilingualism in Poland.
  • Marian Bugajski : Onufry Kopczyński’s concept of language culture
    The aim of this paper is to collect and characterise Onufry Kopczyński’s prescriptive views, which are dispersed across his works, in particular grammar books. There are numerous studies regarding this grammarian; it is known that his scientific and teaching activity had a major influence on the shape of and attitudes towards Polish, yet no synthesis of his assumptions has been made. This paper presents the assumptions in a descriptive manner, and its summary is a synthetic itemised enumeration of the principles which, in the scholar’s opinion, should form the theory and practice of oral and written communication.
  • Alicja Witalisz : Evaluation criteria of proper use of Anglicisms in professional jargons
    Contrary to English loans used in Standard Polish, which have been well-researched in studies on English-Polish language contact, Anglicisms used in Polish professional jargons have been neglected by researchers, despite their steadily growing numbers evidenced by the preliminary research carried out for the purposes of the present study. The aim of the article is to verify the usefulness of the available criteria that help decide whether a lexical innovation is in agreement with language norm, for the normative assessment of professional Anglicisms. One other aim is to enrich the existing list of criteria with other normative determinants, such as semantic precision, pragmatic function, international status of specialised terminology, and the hermetic nature of a professional group. Anglicisms have been excerpted from four professional jargons, whose choice has been determined by their diversity and the hermetic nature of the professional group.
  • Jadwiga Waniakowa : Language norm in the teaching practice. Opinions of students of foreign philologies on the norm of Polish
    This paper is underlain by the teaching experiences gained while running classes for students of foreign philologies, who will be translators/interpreters not only from Polish into a foreign language but also from a foreign language into Polish, and therefore need to be well-familiar with the grammatical rules of Polish and apply them. This text is dedicated to a range of vital problems, which have emerged at the classes. They include: the issue of changeability (evolution) of the norm over time, the relation between the norm and usage and the language system; the issue of the extent to which textbooks on proper language use and online advice of this kind reflect the contemporary norm. There are also the emerging questions about the consistency between the contemporary norm and the language system (in particular in the historical aspect of language), and about the accuracy of the prescriptive findings. Student show keen interest in all these problems, ask logical questions, often seek answers to them on their own, engage in debates, and boldly express their own judgments. Students’ approach to the discussed issues demonstrates, firstly, their sensitivity to departures from the language norm, secondly, their attitude to prescriptive guidance, and thirdly, the state of their language awareness.
  • Agnieszka Banaszkiewicz : Language awareness among youth – selected issues
    This paper falls into the category of language culture. The aim of the study was to test 13-year-old youth’s language awareness in terms of developing their own language skills, proper speaking, and declared language model. The methodology covered a survey supported with an interview questionnaire and inspection of internal documents of the school where the survey was conducted. The analysis of the responses given by 115 students showed that a majority (ca. 80%) of the school youth liked speaking, were able to specify which speaking could be called “nice”, had a declared language authority, although it not always corresponded to linguists’ expectations. Fewer than a half of them (ca. 40%) had a positive attitude to activities developing language skills, saw the point in further improvement, and had some knowledge of how it could be achieved. The most common language model was members of the closest family and teachers, as well as other students and people known from the television.
  • Ewelina Zając : Comparison of verbal fluency of preschool children and primary school pupils as regards proper names and common words
    The verbal fluency test (VFT) is the most popularised and the simplest tool used for neuropsychological diagnosis. The number of reports on children’s performance is low in comparison to the research on adults, and hence interest in this subject matter. Verbal fluency requires access to the resources of the lexical long-term memory, efficiency of the processes of extracting information from it, and effectiveness of action: executive functions, top-down attention function, and working memory, which coordinate and monitor the execution process. The aim of this paper is to present the results and to analyse the research on semantic (categorical) verbal fluency regarding proper names and common words in 7-year-old children and year 1 and 3 primary school pupils with no neurological disorders, within the intellectual norm. The age of the examined children is particularly significant because the results of the test imply both the lexical capacity of a child leaving their preschool, who should be fully prepared for beginning their school education, and a child starting their primary school, as well as a child who finishes their 1st educational stage and is at the border of a curriculum jump. The study is aimed to present the difference in the lexical resource of the individual groups of examined children. The semantic verbal fluency test concerns the ability to update words from a given semantic category – broad and narrow in terms of nomina propria and nomina appellativa.
  • Krzysztof Waśkowski : Compounds in the language of the novel Drzewiej (In the Old Days) by Władysław Orkan as lexical and semantic games
    The object of this paper is compounds found in the novel Drzewiej (In the Old Days) by Władysław Orkan, such as przerwa-potok, that is pairs of hyphenated lexemes. I assume that the concentration of this type of linguistic means, elements of the artistic expression in a text with clearly modernistic linguistic and literary characteristics is a manifestation of a lexical and semantic game played consciously by the text sender and recipient. As a result of the analysis of the contexts in which individual compounds occur, semantics of the lexical units building structures, and with the use of the category of language-game, which was introduced to linguistics by Ludwig Wittgenstein and popularised, among others, by Ewa Jędrzejko, I made an attempt to identify the writer’s motivation to use such expressions. The interpretation of the linguistic material permitted the generalisation providing that compounds were applied for the purpose of building the mood and emotionality of the text, enriching the descriptions of the represented world, characterisation, and his text-forming strategies.


  • Janina Kwiek-Osiowska : Wanda Łomnicka-Dulak, Nadpopradzka dawność. Gwara i kultura górali z okolic Piwnicznej (The old days in the region of the Poprad river. The dialect and culture of Mountaineers from the area of Piwniczna), Piwniczna-Zdrój–Nowy Sącz 2019
  • Milena Wojtyńska-Nowotka : M. Bańko, H. Karaś (eds), Między teorią a praktyką. Metody współczesnej leksykografii (Between theory and practice. Methods of the contemporary lexicography), Vol. I, Warszawa 2018


  • Stanisław Dubisz : Wybór – wybory – wybierać (to choose / select / take out / elect)