Andrzej Bogusławski : The Polish Imperative in the Operational Approach
The author presents a complete and highly generalizing set of operations yielding the 2nd person singular of the Polish imperative. The description is based on the general %model’ called item-and-process and follows the tenets of the author’s 1978 paper on „operational grammar”. The operations are 13 in number and they are organized in a hierarchical way, the last of them having a by default character. They allow us to obtain the correct forms by certain direct substitutions for entire present tense or infinitive forms of the verbs.
Jolanta Chojak : The Reminder about Reminding
The author analyzes the verb [something1] reminds [something2] treated as an epistemic predicate. She discusses presentations of its meaning by means of the expression %podobny’ (%similar’), while %podobieństwo’ (%similarity’), usually considered as a possibility to adjust the same qualities to some objects, is related to knowledge (things are similar if what can be known about one of them has a part in common with what can be known about the other). In the study, this is knowledge coming from direct experience, not deduced, not an outcome of epistemic operations of the subject. The final part offers a representation of the meaning of the verb under discussion. It takes into account both contexts with epistemic subject revealed on the surface, and those, in which knowledge is imputed to a non-indicated subject, though its occurrence is suggested by semantic structure of the predicate.
Magdalena Danielewiczowa : How Do We Use the Word spokojnie (Quiet)?
The author looks through typical contexts in which the expression spokojnie (quiet) occurs in contemporary Polish. Apparently, utterances in which spokojnie functions as a typical adverb, characterizing relations occurring in the outer world, have to be distinguished from those, in which, being a predicate’s attribute, it has meta-predicative function, thus locating itself on non-objective level of language. The main criterion of distinction is, according to the author of the article, availability of the analyzed word for idiomatic negation realized by means of the utterance nie (no). The conclusion offers representation of the meaning of the spokojnie which, as a meta-predicative epistemic adverb naturally avoids negation.
Katarzyna Dróżdż-Łuszczyk : Is postawa obojętna (Indifferent Attitude) a Contradiction in Terms? Semantic Reflections on the Lexeme postawa (Attitude)
The article puts forward a hypothesis that postawa obojętna (indifferent attitude) is a contradictory expression. In order to prove or disprove the hypothesis, the author shows the meaning and syntax of the noun postawa. The author focuses on discussing Puzynina’s article, choosing components of the meaning of the noun postawa and finally tries to verify it and confront the meaning of obojętny (indifferent). Logical operations (especially implication) lead to the conclusion that the noun postawa and the adjective obojętny are allowed to join and the expression is not contradictory.
The article presents the definitions of the noun postawa which are given by dictionaries of psychology as well.
Maciej Grochowski : On Syntactic Features and Connectivity of istny %Real&, iście %Truly&
The article provides an initial syntactic and semantic analysis of two epistemic units: the metatextual adjective istny_ %real’ and the metapredicative operator iście_ %truly’. Both these units function within an utterance as by rematic comments. They confirm the accuracy of appropriate predicates, though they are themselves deprived of predicative features. Their syntactic position is fixed in ante-position. The lexico-semantic connectivity of both items is restricted, higher in the case of istny %virtual’.
Anna Pajdzińska : Nie nastanie świat świetny, świetlisty i świeży? (Won’t There Come the Glorious, Luminous and New World?)
This is an interpretation of the poem by St. Barańczak Braki, odrzuty, produkty zastępcze from the volume Tryptyk z betonu, zmęczenia i śniegu (Triptych with Concrete, Fatigue and Snow) published in 1980 by Cracow Students’ Publishers, and after a year, by the Literary Institute in Paris. According to the author of the article, the world created in the poem, though it greatly resembles PRL reality, cannot be analyzed only from the historical point of view. The reality presented may be a metaphor of the world in general, where mediocrity changes its forms, but is still painfully present. The diagnosis of the lyrical %self’ is quite pessimistic: mediocre are not only material objects, mediocrity also overwhelms all human mental life and defines his existential-metaphysical feelings. The distance of the subject of creation towards mediocrity is signalized by punctuation, syntactic and versifying division, phrases. Thus by stricte poetic means of expression, non-final victory of mediocre over undeniable values of culture is suggested.
Marzena Stępień : How Many Linguistic Units Are There in the Form of stwierdzać/stwierdzić (Reckon)?
The aim of the article is to answer the questions, how many linguistic units there are in the form of stwierdzić and whether one of those units forms an aspect pair with the lexeme twierdzić, as dictionary definitions of the units suggest. Therefore the author defines the number and character of syntactic positions of the analyzed units. Then she tries to match the abstracted units to semantic classes distinguished by Z. Zaron. The next step in the analysis is to define semantic components differentiating the meanings of the verbs in question.
- The Bibliography of Published Studies by Professor Zofia Zaron