ISSUE 3 / 2019


  • Aldona Skudrzyk : Technological determinism and punctuation in the epoch / culture of reversed vectors, or the comma of thoughtlessness and the fullstop of hate.

    The invention of writing entailed enormous consequences not only for human language but also for human mind. This can be seen, for instance, in the birth and development of the culture of literate thinking. Obviously, both (preliterate and literate) cognitive styles cannot be perceived in static terms, and therefore it is worth looking into the influence of modern technologies on the status of the literate cognitive style in language behaviours of the generation raised on new media. Research shows the process of reversing the vector of changes: from intellectualisation of syntax and punctuation (evolution in the 19th century) to their previous emotionalisation and orality related to the “here and now” of speaking. This “reversed vectors” principle concerns also reverse socialization and reverse adaptation. Both social processes exert also a major influence on the formation of language behaviours.

  • Jolanta Szpyra-Kozłowska : The linguistic “gender swap”. Male and female narration in upper-secondary school students’ essays.

    Differences in the linguistic communication of men and women have been studied since the beginning of the 20th century, with the focus on English. Research on gender issues in Polish has been scarce, with only several published works, usually based on the authors’ informal and random observations of oral communication between males and females [e.g. Handke 1986; 1990; 1995]. There are only a few detailed empirical studies carried out in groups of sociolinguistically homogeneous participants and with the use of reliable research methods.

    The present paper offers the first analysis of Polish teenagers’ views and ideas on the language used by the opposite gender on the basis of an innovative language experiment. 20 female and male upper-secondary school students were asked to give a written account of either a party they had recently attended or a school trip. Afterwards, theparticipants were requested to describe the same events from the perspective of a person of the opposite gender.

    A comparison of the pairs of texts written before and after the “gender swap” enabled us to identify the major features of male and female language as seen by the participants while an examination of the original stories revealed their genuine characteristics. The obtained results imply that in writing the second version of the text the subjects were guided mainly by gender-related cultural and linguistic stereotypes, which rarely corresponded to the actual properties of the language used by girls and boys in the analysed works.

  • Marta Chojnacka : Ciamajdan, oszołomstwo, puczyści... Selected word formation phenomena in online comments on the actions of the Polish Parliamentary opposition in December 2016.

    The aim of this paper is to describe selected word formation structures present in the statements made by Internet users commenting on the events which took place in the Polish Sejm in December 2016. The object of the analysis is primarily new expressions, coined and fully comprehensible in a specific socio-political context, such as: Majdanek, Ciamajdan and koderasta. The author describes their structure and communicative function. Most of the derivatives discussed in the paper are examples of lexical contaminations with the corresponding conceptual amalgams. The analysis combines the structural description of derivatives with some elements of cognitive methodology: R. Langacker’s dynamic model and G. Fauconnier and M. Turner’s theory of conceptual integration.

  • Jagoda Bloch : Stress in television news services.
    Newscasts are an important element of many television stations’ programming. What is a significant factor affecting the understanding of the transmitted content is the way of reading it out. In Polish, the following means of expression serve the purpose of ensuring optimal content comprehension: rising intonation, falling intonation, proper text segmentation, that is sentence division into smaller logical parts, pace of reading, emotional tone suitable to the communicated content, and proper stress. Skilful, varied stress makes the message fully understandable and attractive. Currently, overstress, which might contribute to journalists not only making the impression of engagement, competence and dynamics but also inciting viewers’ interest, is noticeable. The examples presented in the paper cover the most common ways of using prosodic elements, which could be generalised reading patterns accompanying stress. They constitute the basis for identifying reading tendencies in contemporary news services.
  • Justyna Zwolan : Phonological awareness among second class primary school pupils.
    Phonological awareness is a term of very complex definitions. The diversity concerns in particular the scope of the notion (there are both very narrow definitions of phonological awareness, where it is identified virtually exclusively with phonematic hearing, and very broad ones). The available tests enabled me to examine the following aspects of phonological awareness among second class primary school pupils: ability to differentiate phonemes (comparison of paronyms), phonological skills, that is operating on phonological units (analysis of the phonemic structure of paronyms, syllable and sound synthesis and analysis of artificial words), phonological echoic memory (direct memory of artificial words), as well as echoic perception and sensory-motor coordination (precisely, echoic-motor one). The study has shown that after the first year of school education most of the examined children achieved results that were inadequate to the adopted standards.
  • Roman Starz : Location of deviations from spelling standards in words from pupils’ texts.

    The knowledge of the frequency of the location of an incorrect spelling of a word is significant in intrasubject integration in teaching Polish. A teacher having such information can introduce spelling exercises preventing the most typical errors in inflectional or morphological units. In order to identify the most frequent locations of incorrect spelling, 250 casual texts of 4th-6th class primary school pupils were used.

    Deviations from spelling standards occur more often in inflectional units than in morphological ones and over five times more frequently in the inflectional ending than on the boundary between the inflectional stem and ending.

    The most common places of deviations from spelling standards related to the morphological structure of a word is the suffix, the prefix, the boundary between the prefix and the root word, the boundary between the root word and the suffix. Particular attention should be paid to female nouns ending with –ia since there are several places where spelling errors can be made in their inflection paradigm.

  • Anna Wróblewska : The language of persons with visual impairments: environmental lexis and use of metaphors.
    The object of this paper is the issue of environmental variant of language used by persons with visual impairments. Firstly, specific sociocultural considerations, which are the foundation of the sociolect development among members of the examined group, are discussed. These include in particular: the sense of autonomy and community of life opportunities, the nurture of group traditions through maintaining and establishing appropriate institutions, and the occurrence of numerous interactions between persons with visual impairments. Methodological triangulation consisting of observation, individual interviews with blind people, and analysis of the content of selected articles published in „Pochodnia” („Torch”) were applied in the course of the research procedure. The findings point to the expressive nature of the sociolect. Both the use of metaphors and environmental lexis serve the purpose of manifesting the specific social position of the analysed group and the attitude towards one’s own disability adopted by the blind. A characteristic phenomenon is also the abundance of sight metaphors in utterances of persons with visual impairments.


  • Agnieszka Piotrowska-Wojaczyk : Archaizmy leksykalne (*) w Słowniku języka polskiego S.B. Lindego w świetle geografi i lingwistycznej, (Lexical archaisms (*) in the Dictionary of Polish by S.B Linde in light of linguistic geography), Gdańsk 2017.