The article raises three aspects of research on child speech: (1) defines the term <child speech>, (2) outlines the process of child speech development, (3) describes the research development of child speech. The aspects constitute three parts of the article.
As far as the first aspect is concerned, the author claims that, although the term
Referring to the second aspect raised in the article, the author offers a new pattern of development phases of child speech, considering mainly the communicative criterion.
Concerning the third aspect, synthetic characteristics of periods and trends in child speech research has been presented, beginning from the 19th century.
In conclusion of the article which is a part of a larger paper, the author indicates the complexity of schools and research trends in contemporary child speech studies.
The article is a suggestion to verify linguistic theories with the help of experimental methods applied in psycholinguistics. Conducted research works concerned categorization of participles in Polish. Their place in the system is ambiguous when we try to classify them according to classical rules, based on mathematical logic.
In our experiment, we used the lexical decision task method, where verbal stimuli (we compared nouns, verbs, adjectives, participles and gerunds) differed from one another in the frequency of appearing in Polish, the length measured with the number of letters and their grammatical category. The response time was a measured variable.
It turned out that there is a substantial difference in the response time between verbs and both nouns and adjectives, whereas there is no difference in the response time between participles and both verbs and adjectives. Additionally, the response time to participles indeed differs from the processing time of inflected forms of verbs. These results show that participial forms are derivatives situated among categories of verbs and adjectives.
The lack of one logopedic terminology is often the reason for failure in communication of diagnosis of children with language communication difficulties. The author of the article suggests application of the distinguished notions %retarded speech development’ and %speech development disorder’, %retarded speech development’ and %speech development delay’. She characterizes retarded and delayed speech development. She also distinguishes and describes two forms of retarded speech development, i.e. simple speech development delay and speech development delay.
In the article, she verifies the Project of Speech Disorders Forms by H. Mierzejewska and D. Emiluta-Rozya in the part referring to speech development delay by elimination of the form as a diagnostic unit of delayed, and not retarded speech development.
The aim of the research. Characterization of speech disorders in patients with Wilson disease.
Justification. Lack of detailed data in literature concerning the speech condition in patients with this disease, the description of speech disorders serves the appropriate formulation of recommendations for logopedic therapy of patients with Wilson disease and for patients with similar speech disorders in the course of other diseases which damage the basal ganglia.
Procedure. The paper is based on cases studies. Clinical procedures: interview, clinical examination of non-verbal motor of articulators, speech examination based on the recorded verbal material and its quantitative and qualitative analysis. The research results were reviewed by independent competent judges. Speech disorders were described in connection with the results of the research concerning non-verbal articulators and the respiratory-phonic-articulatory potential of the patients.
Research group and control group characteristics. 51 patients with Wilson disease participated in the research (25 men and 26 women). They were patients of II Neurological Clinic of the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw, aged between 15 and 69. The control group included physically healthy people without speech disorders, similar to the research group in terms of age and sex.
Results. The patients had symptoms of dynamic breathing disorders but there were no cases of static ones. The research showed considerable diversity of the level of disorders intensity (from lack of speech to trace phonemes realization disorders). The condition of the patients’ speech was the outcome of the realization and prosodic disorders and the retained motor abilities of the speech apparatus and the applied compensation strategies. Dysarthia occurred in patients with neurological form of the disease. The most common types of dysarthic disorders include: rigid, rigid-hyperkinetic and rigid-dystonic dysarthia. The non-verbal motor disorders of the articulators were often more intensified than realization disorders or they anticipated the occurrence of speech disorders.
Practical conclusions. The assessment of the examined patients’ speech condition should take into account: the quality and the frequency of the motor disorders, the retained motor abilities and the compensation strategies. It is recommended to start exercising articulators’ motor, still in the subclinical period. It is advised to start exercising with verbal material as quickly as possible. The choice of material should take into account diagnostic data.