Józef Porayski-Pomsta : The Role of Research on Speech Dysfunctions in Contemporary Linguistics
In the article, the author considers the meaning of research on speech disorders for the so-called pure linguistics. According to him, the research, above all, justifies Noam Chomsky’s model of inner speech and his thesis that language is a quality of human brain. Based on research of aphasia and dyslexia, he presents a close interrelation between correctly developing and efficiently working brain on the one hand and the norm of linguistic behaviors of an individual on the other. He indicates possibilities of using the knowledge based on the research of dysfunctions in linguistic-didactic work.
Teodozja Rittel : Metaphoric (Imaginative) Argumentation in Students’ Utterances about The Bible
The article includes a presentation of students’ utterances about The Bible. They show formulated metaphors as means of description, perception, action and thinking. For example, space perception is dominated by upward orientation (transcendentalism), description of action is dominated by experience presented in the category of a thing. Students mainly use metaphors which are originally verbalized in The Bible and which, in an educational discourse, occur as learned utterances. Some of the students’ utterances include mistakes concerning Biblical metaphors’ register or rhetorical mistakes.
Agata Rytel : On the Subject-Object Character of the Linguistic Picture of the World in Children’s Rhymes
The article is an attempt to answer the question, how to define the linguistic picture of the world and the linguistic vision of the world in children’s rhymes. Initially, the author of the article presumes that the structure of the linguistic picture of the world is a continuum, whose extreme points are the subject-object sphere. Then, he raises the question about the subject of the linguistic picture of the world. In children’s rhymes, the subject is an observer and a commentator at the same time. Moreover, it is a subject hidden behind the world presented, and the subject which puts itself at the scene of events being described. Thus, the author defines the vision of the world as a subjective aspect of the linguistic perception of the reality, including the presence of the subject – participant of events being described. The subject is registered directly in the meaning of words, linguistically mediated. He calls this kind of subject the (perceiving) objectified one. He defines the linguistic picture of the world as an objective aspect of linguistic perception of reality. Even if the subject of the picture of the world – an observer or a viewer – is on the edge of the picture, has still a great impact on it. Subject-object aspect of the picture of the world in children’s poems is a transitive category: an object picture may become subjectified, whereas a subject captured in words – objectified.
Agnieszka Borowiec : The Tissue of Speech – Linguistic and Kinetic Processes of Utterance Formation
A broad look at the process of speech formation allows us to notice two levels on which the process occurs. The former one is a psycho-linguistic, mental stage of linguistic message formation, while the latter, kinetic one, in which communicative intention is realized in phonic-articulation form. An elaborate connection between the two levels which guarantees an effective utterance, meeting all conditions of successful communication, is still an area not thoroughly researched. The article attempts to describe the relations by means of the psycho-linguistic model of speech formation by Willem Levelt including kinetic phonation-articulation behaviors.
Marta Sierocka-Rogala : Behavioral Methods in Speech Teaching
Teaching communication-linguistic abilities to autistic children is still a great challenge for speech therapists. The article presents two educational models originating from the principles of Applied Behavioral Analysis – Lovaas’s model and the model of Verbal Behaviors by Sundberg and Partington. It also introduces basic assumptions of B.F. Skinner concerning human verbal behavior, presenting major verbal operants: mand, tact, intraverbal and echoic reactions.
Marlena Kurowska : Ability to Form a Description and a Narration by Children with Dysfunctions of Central Nervous System
The article is a presentation of part of the material obtained in the author’s own research of two groups of 14 children aged 6 to 8. The former one included children with various symptoms of speech disorders resulting from anatomic and/or function faults, the latter one was a control group consisting of children with correct speech development.
A test checking ability to realize a description and a narration was aimed to acknowledge general communication behaviors of each child, vocabulary used by a child and the capacity and correctness of grammatical forms used by children. Test results might be crucial for speech diagnosis of each child used in the research.
Genre qualities of both forms of narration were realized better by children without speech disorders. Both groups of children found it easier to describe a thematic picture. The resulting speeches had not yet fully developed structure of composition. In realization of a description and a narration by children having dysfunctions, apparently, there were great individual differences. In narrative texts of children with brain dysfunctions, there were numerous faults in word and sound structure. There is a register of utterances which cannot be identified as Polish words and paraphasias and perseverations. In certain situations children with brain dysfunctions compensated their disability to produce the appropriate structure with gestures and onomatopoeias. Otherwise, they used demonstrative pronouns or answered nie wiem (‘I don’t know).
Katarzyna Pardej : The Influence of Discourse on Creating Tales by Children Aged 2 to 10
The following article touches the matter of influence of discourse on the ability to create tales. It shows the genesis and development of narration among preschool, kindergarten and school aged children – as that is the time when the grounds for further linguistic development are prepared. For the purpose of presenting that development of narration, this article presents different scientific approaches to discourse and its perception. It is treated as a redundant term of linguistic phraseology and it is thought to be a term equivalent or broader than that of text. The more often a child enters a narrative discourse the greater is its gained ability to create tales. Content, plot structure and cause-effect issues become thus clearer and more mature.
Natalia Siudzińska : Speech Improvement of a Child with Cleft Lip and Palate (a Case Study)
The article is devoted to the therapy of speech disorders of a child with cleft lip and palate. Children with this fault have difficult speech development due to improper anatomic conditions. The biggest speech distortion is speaking through the nose, as a symptom of palatal-laryngeal disability, and various types of lisp as a result of the cleft and incorrect occlusion. The aim of the article is to show what is crucial about disorders associated with the cleft and to present the process of speech improvement, including exercises training speech apparatus.