Piotr Żmigrodzki : Dictionary as a Text Corpus – Text Corpus as a Dictionary. Perspectives of Scholarly Lexicography in Poland
The author distinguishes between two kinds of lexicography: scholarly and non-scholarly (popular) ones. In the first part of the paper he defines his concept of a scholarly (academic) dictionary and shows some distinctions between a scholarly and a popular dictionary. Then the author argues, that it is no sense in the future to publish scholarly dictionaries in their traditional (printed) version and they should appear as online or offline text corpora, supported with good concordance programs. The main argument is that most linguists, who use scholarly dictionaries nowadays, work with computers and they treat a dictionary, mostly a historic one, only as a text corpus: they are interested in text data, not in lexicographic description. This kind of description sometimes appears to be old-fashioned, based on outdated, theoretical foundations, but text illustration is still valid and used as exemplification of new theoretical projects and analyses. In conclusion, the author postulates closer cooperation between linguists and specialists who work in computer linguistics and integration of linguistic and “technological” knowledge in the process of education of future lexicographers.
Justyna Winiarska : Linguistic Sign as an Example of Ontological Metaphor in Scholarly Studies
Conceptual metaphor which allows understanding abstract phenomena by means of inference patterns and knowledge based on real physical experience is a crucial tool in scholarly thinking. Ontological metaphors play the major role here, drawing abstractions and processes onto the level of material beings, making them more understandable, but reducing possible conceptualizations of described phenomena. These metaphors also create linguistic reflection. The article shows ontological metaphors, used by Ferdinand de Saussure in The Course of General Linguistics, in which he presents his concept of linguistic sign.
Mirosław Dawlewicz : „Euro-Vocabulary” Expansion in Polish Press in Lithuania
The aim of the article is to analyze word structures containing the euro- part, which are now numerous in Polish press offered in Lithuania. The range of formations under discussion shows clear references to the European Union, European integration and NATO. On the other hand, these elements appear not only in common formations, but also in various occasional ones, presented in the article. High productivity of the euro- part, building one of the widest series of neologisms, seems to encourage creation of occasional formations.
Mirosław Michalik : Two Aspects of Linguistic-Educational Theory and Linguistic Practice, i.e. about Anglo-Saxon and Polish Educational Linguistic
The article presents theoretical bases and topical scope of two sections of educational linguistics: Anglo-Saxon, developing in western Europe, the USA, Israel, Australia, and in Polish, practised mostly at Cracow Pedagogical Academy. In the west, this section of applied linguistics analyses the nature of processes which are the basis of linguistic skills. Polish educational linguistics in the methodological sense shows a double perception of language facts: from language to education and vice versa, in the practical sense, it is a collection of tools for investigation of linguistic skills. To sum up, western educational linguistics has practical functions in linguistic education, whereas its Polish section has theoretical reflection on the education-language line more developed.
Joanna Smól : Persuasion in Television Information
There are basic persuasive strategies used in two major information programs, i.e. in Wiadomości (The News) on the first public channel, and in Fakty (Facts) on the private TVN channel. Issues referring to verbal and non-verbal persuasion are analyzed in the article, as well as the selection of information, their order and entertaining elements. The analysis of persuasive means includes such elements of programs as: the opening, the hosts’ talks, reports from places of events, sentences said by the witnesses of the events. It has led to the conclusion that persuasion usually has economic background associated with an attempt to advertise their own program. It results in the change of speaker-receiver communication into less formal.
Małgorzata Warchoł-Schlottmann : On Linguistic Games with Acronyms
Acronyms, the linguistic mode of contemporary communication, are very useful and popular because of their economy in use. They replace long names of political parties, of international institutions like ONZ (UNO), as well as technical terminology (DVD, PC); communication in www is fully based on acronyms. The article investigates a popular phenomenon in Polish colloquial language: “reinterpretation” of well known acronyms of standard language. This linguistic “subversion” consists in lexical substitution: the right words, which make a well known acronym, are replaced by other words (with the same initial letter). This way the well known standard acronyms gain a new signification, usually ironic, malicious, but at the same time humorous: MO (Milicja Obywatelska) Citizens’ Militia, in the new interpretation: MO stands for Możesz Oberwać (You Can Obtain). This word game was one of linguistic self-defence mechanisms against the totalitarian language and flourished in the times of communism in Poland. The main purpose of the “reinterpretation” of acronyms in social dialects of students or teenagers is to augment the expressiveness and the comic effects of the message.