ISSUE 6 / 2017


  • Olga Jauer-Niworowska, Danuta Emiluta-Rozya : Theoretical bases of diagnosis and therapy of speech disorders in persons with extrapyramidal system damage/dysfunctions
    This paper describes the theoretical bases of diagnosis and therapy of speech disorders in persons with extrapyramidal system disorders. It demonstrates the influence of the disorders on linguistic and communication behaviours of patients. The complexity of motor, emotional and cognitive considerations forming their speech are also described here.
  • Marlena Kurowska : Speech delay and developmental aphasia in the speech therapist’s practice
    Speech delay and developmental aphasia are units of abnormal speech and language development in a small child. Their first symptoms can appear as early as at the beginning of the linguistic development, i.e. ca. at the age of 1, and can be quite similar. Differentiating between such units not seldom requires a long and meticulous speech assessment and a systematic observation of speech and language development dynamics in a child during the improvement process. It is a difficult task in particular for young and inexperienced speech therapists who are at the beginning of their career. This paper presents certain tips which could enable a more precise and correct diagnosis of children’s linguistic and extra-linguistic behaviours that are characteristic of such units.
  • Natalia Siudzińska : Principles of the speech therapy procedure in the case of children with cleft lip and palate
    The aim of this paper is to describe the speech therapy procedure in the case of children with cleft lip and palate, with a particular focus on preventive measures. It discusses the elements of the procedure that could significantly influence the effects of the therapy in detail. Improperly selected exercises to train organs of speech or improve breathing will not bring satisfactory effects or can even intensify bad habits. Complying with the recommendations described in this paper is particularly important in the treatment of children with open nasality.
  • Ewa Wolańska : New forms of speech-language pathology therapy as a response to new forms of pharmacotherapy in Alzheimer’s disease
    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of neurodegenerative diseases causing progressive and irreversible loss of neurons in various regions of the brain. It is characterised by memory deficits and disorders such as aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia. Cognitive impairment results in deteriorated functioning of the patient with respect to the initial condition to the extent debilitating their everyday functioning. The paper presents the initial results of the research on new types of medications used to treat AD. If, after completing clinical trials, it proves that the new substances stop or significantly slow the progression of neurodegeneration, physical therapists or various specialties, including speech-language pathologists, will deal with a completely new task. This is because in the face of an extremely difficult therapeutic situation, resulting from unfavourable prognosis in AD, the patient’s frequent demotivation, etc., they have endeavoured only to stabilise the patient’s cognitive functions and communication capabilities to this date. Now in turn the therapy’s aim will be to enable the patient to regain a relative independence through stimulation of the natural reconstruction of the damaged functions and teaching the patient how to compensate for the deficits which prove permanent.
  • Joanna Zawadka : Graphetics in the service of speech therapy
    This paper presents one of the fields of linguistics, namely graphetics, and its significance in speech therapy – both in the theoretical and practical dimensions. Based on literature review, the author summarises the findings regarding the object and scope of graphetics and describes its two main areas: visual graphetics and mechanical graphetics. Graphetics is the necessary component of the linguistic bases of speech therapy. The selected examples of language communication disorders by means of writing presented in this paper demonstrate a variety of the difficulties experienced by a person in the face of which the knowledge of graphetics permits a better understanding and definition of the problems and, consequently, an indication of the possible ways of providing a suitable aid.
  • Anita Lorenc : The place of articulation of the Polish lateral. A study using electromagnetic articulography

    The fi rst part of this paper presents the lateral consonant in the classifi catory framework of the International Phonetic Association (IPA). The concept of the lateral approximant is defi ned on the basis of the sound’s articulatory features and its most frequent variants occurring in various languages of the world. In this context, the results of instrumental phonetic research on the Polish lateral are discussed.

    The remainder of the paper reports on a study of the Polish lateral that was conducted by the authors with the use the electro-magnetic articulograph (EMA), a technique which had never been used before in the description of this Polish sound. The report contains details of the speakers recorded for the purpose of the study, the examined language material, the articulograph, as well as the criteria of articulatory segmentation and analysis. The results of the investigation show that the place of articulation of the Polish lateral was postalveolar in 65.71% and alveolar in 35.29% of the analysed cases. The concluding part of the paper confronts the obtained data with the state of research on the place of articulation of Polish /l/.

  • Beata Ciecierska-Zajdel : Sounds [ś, ź, ć, ʒ́] as realised by students of the University of Warsaw. A sociolinguistic approach
    The subject of this paper is disorders in the realisation of middle-tongue dentalised phonemes among students of the University of Warsaw. The author analyses the irregularities [ś, ź, ć, ʒ́] frequency in spontaneous speech and in the text read out loud and the impact of social factors (home region, size of the locality, parents’ education) and biological factors (age, sex) on the popularisation of the deformed pronunciation. The relation between the tendency for the deformed pronunciation of soft dentalised sounds and the command of foreign languages is also subject to observation.
  • Katarzyna Bieńkowska, Natalia Siudzińska, Marzena Stępień : The application of a semantic and lexical fi eld network in a therapeutic programme serving the purpose of language formation. Proposition
    The theoretical reflection on speech and language disorders called e.g. alalia, speech underdevelopment of cortical origin, aphasia in children, or specific language impairment was devoted a lot of space in the relevant literature. However, there are no therapeutic programmes or tools to aid speech therapists shape the language system in a child in an organised and consistent manner. The paper presents the attempts made to this date in order to create such a programme and theoretical assumptions of the author’s original proposition of such a therapy. The order and method of introducing individual language structures are specified and it is shown that vocabulary development with the simultaneous application and integration of various grammatical structures is more effective than introduction of vocabulary in isolation from such structures.
  • Katarzyna Bieńkowska : Adaptation of the Integrated Scale of Development (ISD) to the needs of the Polish language
    The Integrated Scale of Development (ISD) is a questionnaire used in 30 countries in the world in order to assess speech development in cochlear-implanted children. The aim of this study is to estimate the usefulness of this questionnaire in assessing speech development in Polish-speaking children and to describe the adaptation process and the related difficulties. The research conducted in a group of 193 hearing children allowed the ascertainment that the ISD version adapted to the specificity of the phonology, morphology and syntax of the tested language is a universal tool. The results can be used to study the level of language skills of normal-hearing children, hearing-impaired children – to compare them with a given language standard, and to compare the results of the therapy of hearing-impaired children to the results of research carried out in other languages. At the same time, the experience gained during the process of ISD adjustment to the Polish language can be used while adjusting this scale to other Slavic languages.


  • Iwona Sołtys : Izabela Więcek-Poborczyk, Normy wymawianiowe polszczyzny a wariantywność wymowy (Pronunciation standards of Polish versus pronunciation variation), Warszawa 2014
  • Małgorzata Kapusta : Halina Pelcowa, Słownik gwar Lubelszczyzny (Dictionary of Lublin region dialects), Vol. IV: Sad i ogród warzywny. Budownictwo i przestrzeń podwórza (Orchard and vegetable garden. Construction and space of the yard), Lublin 2016