Teresa Skubalanka : Language Creativity and some other Questions
The article refers to two collective books containing studies on stylistics. These are: Człowiek, słowo, świat and Język i styl twórcy w kręgu badań współczesnej humanistyki. The author presents problems such as open nature of artistic style, essence of stylistic structure and relations between creator and the style of his work. The author argues with the opinion of domination of structuralistic methodology in previous Polish studies on stylistics.
Marek Ruszkowski : The Concept of Linguistic Right
The concept of linguistic right is understood differently in linguistic lite-
rature. The definitions contained in the most important Polish linguistic lexicons are inadequate to the rights listed there. Therefore, the essence of the article is to define (and if need be to distinct) the following concepts: linguistic right – natural right, linguistic right – language rule, lingusitic right – statistic linguistic right, statistic linguistic right – statistical language accuracy. The author proposes the following definition of linguistic right: Systematic relationships between elements of language, which includes the vast majority of the facts that are the subject of observation, appearing in multiple languages from different language families. It is characterized with: quantity, verification, versatility and falsification. Lingusitic right must always be based on statistics (quantity), must be able to be verified positively (verification), must appear in many languages (versatility). Linguistic right is valid until it is falsified (falsification). The basic functions of linguistic right are: 1. systematization of facts, 2. their explanation, 3. their prediction (one can predict the relationship between the elements of language or – if linguistic right appears in many languages – one can predict that it appears also in a language that has not been described yet).
Anna Dąbrowska : What is Hidden in the Word Foreign? Problems of Teaching Polish as a Foreign Language
The author discusses problems connected with intercultural aspects of teaching Polish as a foreign language and concentrates on problems concerning acculturation (or anomy) of foreigners residing in Poland temporarily or permanently. The author mentions different aspects of teaching Polish as a foreign language (e.g. state language policy, motivation to learn Polish). The foreigners arriving to Poland are treated by the Polish (including Polish instructors) as close or distant foreigners. Their foreignness is expressed by speaking broken Polish and by cultural differences, including culture of everyday life. The role of Polish instructor – except for teaching a language – is to bring closer the culture of the country of settlement. The author concludes that in the process of acculturation and exploring the language it is important not only to respect the cultural differences of the foreigners, but also to respect the culture of the country of settlement by the visiting.
Dorota Zdunkiewicz-Jedynak : Homiletic Communicability. For Fear of the Church Talking
The concept of clarity is seen today as vague. On the one hand it consists of comprehensibility, reason, clearness, clear statement’s composition, on the other of ontogenic empathy skills towards the addressee of the statement, sensing their expectations, efficient use of verbal measures, body language, paraverbal elements. Preacher’s speech is subjected to the same laws of communicability as secular texts, but only to the extent that the sermon integrates the functions appropriate to secular texts: communicatory, persuasive, expressive. The author focuses on ways how communicability is built in homiletic texts, taking into consideration the latest rules from the area of pragmalinguistics, that is concentrated on the participation (in communication) contextual factors, such as sender’s intentions, transreceiver relationships, circumstances in which the speech act takes place.
Anna Barankiewicz : Magic and Performative Statements in Polish Apocrypha from Middle Ages
The analysis of casual statements in Polish apocrypha in Old Polish era – suggested in this article – is based on the assumption that magic of language is not only the expression of a particular point of view, but it also means performing particular activities. As long as the magic formula, it is largely performative utterance. Justification of performative and magical character of examined phrases is only possible by reference to their context – sometimes very broad or even historical (e.g. in the case of prophecies), as well as it is based on assumptions of genealogy, stylistics, etnolinguistics and anthropology.
In the article the author presents typology of magic activities which includes rituals of posing, prayers and prophecies, magical situations and moments of revelation of the power of the sacred in the sphere of the profane (hierophantic and annunciation).
Elżbieta Wierzbicka-Piotrowska : Language Exponents of Intensification of Set’s Pervasiveness
The author conducts the analysis of statements which transfer information about accounting by the sender all set’s elements where the reference of Polish non-compound modified pronouns and negative pronouns is involved. It appeared that the measures which perform such a function in Polish are: a) derivatives formed from pronominal lexemes using the suffixes: -utk(i), -eńk(i), -uteńk(i), -usieńk(i), -utk(o), -eńk(o), -uteńk(o) and the prefix prze-, b) syntactic structures resulting from reduplication of a pronoun, c) a few collocations.
Anna Kisiel : Bardziej przyczynek niż wyczerpujące stadium – a few Words about the Words bardziej (more)_niż (than)_
The article is devoted to preliminary semantic characterization of the unit – bardziej _ niż _. The presented analysis proceeds in two stages. On the one hand, the author recognizing the unit raczej _ niż _ as synonymous and using the former thoughts of Magdalena Danielewiczowa on the latter, shows semantic differences between two particles. The comparison of bardziej _ niż _
and raczej _ niż _ shows that its choice of what is said on a particular topic is not connected with the rejection of other possible sayings. The comparison with related to it bardziej leads to a statement that the choice is based on the number of factors of a particular saying.
Marcin Zabawa : Awatar, pokój, centrum and others: Latest Semantic Borrowings in Polish
English semantic borrowings have become more visible in written and spoken Polish language. None of the presented borrowings has ever been described in literature (according to the author’s knowledge). The author compares past and present meanings of some Polish words and then confronts them with the adequate meanings of English words. The use of the words in new contexts is illustrated with numerous examples mostly taken from the Internet. One can risk a thesis that the latest phenomena in Polish appear most often on the Internet.