Morphological structure of Polish surnames with -isz/ysz exponent comes from appellative origins. Within the range of appellative derivates, the type in question, compared with others, occurs incidentally in few forms derived from verbs, to compare: chwalisz ‛samochwał’, zdobysz ‛zdobycz’, those derived from adjectives, to compare gołysz/hołysz, and those derived from nouns, to compare drzewisz ‛rodzaj chrząszcza’.
The thesis about peripheral position of the type within the system of appellative derivates is based on scarce evidence of related formations.
The capacity of anthroponomical derivates (over 200) indicates the type activated in personal names. The structure of surnames seems to convince about primarily appellative-onomastic (anthroponomical) character of word formation processes, when personal names originate from appellative basis: Chrapisz: chrapać, Dybisz: dybać, Chudzisz: chudy, Głąbisz: głąb, Krowisz: krowa, analogically to appellatives. Activeness of the type only in the onomastic area reveals in derivates originating from names in the history of Polish, compare Będzisz: Będzieciech, Będziemir, Janisz: Jan, Stanisz: Stanisław etc.
Polish surnames with -isz/ysz endings may be shifts of appellative derivates with the described structure and derivates: 1) in the appellative- onomastic area, when a personal name is derived from appellative basis, 2) in the onomastic area, when a new structure comes from nomen proprium.
The aim of the article is to reveal phonological processes which have to be taken into account in order to teach Polish successfully in multi-lingual environment.
The author describes Polish phonological system compared with other languages, considers language acquisition and indicates that whatever comes late in the development of child’s speech is also a special challenge for foreigners learning Polish as a foreign language. She depicts phonetic-phonological processes, typical of foreign accents and their influence on communication.
In certain conditions (spontaneous speech, children’s utterances) simplifications or substitutions do not disturb communication while listening comprehension is greatly based on the context. In other words, if our brain ‛does not understand’ what it hears, it tries to reconstruct the speaker’s intentions by substitutions of elements within natural phonological classes and by adding the most probable elements in a given context. Mental phonological processes also help to reconstruct intentions of speakers with a foreign accent.
The article also presents strategies of dealing with combinations of consonants. Polish perception is efficient when it comes to simplifications resembling processes typical of language acquisition or spontaneous Polish. Another problem presented in the article is breaking down Polish consonant combinations and how it disturbs the processes of speech comprehension.
Numerous examples used in the paper show how vital phonological processes are, controlling speech comprehension. It is possible to understand a person speaking with a foreign accent if his or her phonetic-phonological strategies are consistent, predictable and equivalent to the processes in child’s speech development or spontaneous speech.
The study is based on interpretation of a textual unit defined as an episode – in the form of speech act configuration, which registers (represents) a certain period of special concentration of attention, which lasts until the attention is shifted to another object of thought. It is about a unit of perception and thinking which gathers attention of a speaker – listener and supports their concentration until they reach the limit of an episode.
On the grounds of communicative grammar, speech acts forcing to increased concentration of attention (in our context it would be the teacher’s utterance: let’s pay attention to) realize a double conversational strategy: controlling students’ attention and supporting meta-cursive tactics associated with the command-request for concentration of attention.