ISSUE 2 / 2016


  • Ewa Lipińska, Anna Seretny, Przemysław Turek : Polish used by Poles from abroad, foreigners and native speakers – the same in theory but not the same in practices

    This text is an attempt to look at the processes taking place in the Polish language from the perspective of educated Poles from abroad and foreigners learning out language. The two groups, despite apparent differences, have something in common: they both experience the feeling of linguistic alienation when interacting with Poles in Poland. This feeling results from the fact that, contrary to Poles, they tend to use the standard variety of Polish. Their language is thus the same in theory but not exactly the same in practice.

    The same – as its command let them participate without problems in majority of communication events. Not exactly the same as is significantly differs from the one used by Poles on the everyday basis. It is plain, devoid of innovations (neologisms, borrowings, etc.) which nowadays are present not only in unofficial but also in official utterances and statements of Polish users.

    The text illustrates the issue of linguistic otherness/alienation with examples. It also strives at showing how this phenomenon might be counteracted both with respect to foreigners learning Polish and Poles from abroad.

  • Jolanta Szpyra-Kozłowska : Language-external factors affecting the phonetic and phonological adaptation of anglicisms in contemporary Polish
    The paper undertakes the complex and largely neglected issue of the phonetic and phonological adaptation of English loanwords into Polish examined from the perspective of language-external factors involved in this phenomenon. They include the channel of borrowing (spoken, written and mixed), the period of time in which a word was borrowed, the degree of bilingualism of the target society and the nature of the source accent (British English and/or American English). On the basis of a rich body of language data it is shown how these factors contribute to the ultimate shape of anglicisms in Polish.
  • Agnieszka Libura, Anna Żurek : Erosion of the genitive case in Polish as a heritage language
    This paper is aimed at analysing the erosion of the Polish genitive in utterances of early Polish-German Bilinguals for whom Polish is an inherited but not fully acquired language, within the framework of cognitive semantics, with the special emphasis on the conceptual blending theory. We employ Fauconnier and Turner’s theory as particularly useful for examining structures resulting from more complex interference, i.e. the ones which are not simply copying the speaker’s dominant language structures. The approach in question has not been applied to a greater extent in language acquisition research to date. Based on the Hamburg Corpus of Polish in Germany created by Bernhard Brehmer in the period 2008–2011, we have analysed the erosion of genitive in utterances of heritage language speakers who are early Polish-German bilinguals. The research has shown that our respondents’ genitive does not disappear like it does in German. On the contrary, its position seems to be stronger than that of other cases because it is regularly used for expressing quantification and occurs in the situations where the user does not know which case should be applied. On the other hand, we have also perceived the change of verb rection into accusative, erosion of genitive under the infl uence of German, and integration with expansive structures of the German language (blend of the Polish synthetic genitive of relation and the German one expressed with an analytical structure with the preposition von and dative).
  • Anna Suchodolska : Identity of foreigners in Poland: based on sociolinguistic research on their language awareness and communication awareness
    The paper presents an analysis of individual and collective language awareness of immigrants living in Poland. The language awareness of my respondents reflects their communicative awareness: they analyse all language phenomena from the communication viewpoint. The respondents’ stereotypes and communicative experience influence the communication process. The article discusses the fear of aggression (language aggression) and two attitudes toward identity: 1) conservative attitude and 2) disintegrative yet innovative attitude [Dubisz 2014, 20]. Language universalism has been characterized as a reflection of an innovative attitude toward identity. A European identity and global identity result from respondents’ willingness to integrate into a new society for economic reasons.
  • Izabela Stąpor : Spelling in old journals published by the Polish community in Brazil (on the example of „Gazeta Polska w Brazylii” („Polish Paper in Brazil”))
    This paper discusses the problem of spelling in the press published by the Polish community in Brazil and the influence the Brazilian Portuguese spelling has exerted on it. The material basis is more than 100 issues of „Gazeta Polska w Brazylii” („Polish Paper in Brazil”) of 1893–1911. Relying on the collected data, numerous spelling features proving the impact of Portuguese spelling were recorded in the weekly, e.g.: applying Portuguese diacritics, employing letters and diacritics absent from standard Polish, using letters such as k and c, s and z in a hesitant manner, as well as doubling certain letters (like in Portuguese words, e.g. processya under the influence of Port. procissão), failing to standardise the use of capital letters. What results from the analysis of the material is that spelling in journals published by Polish communities abroad – in isolation from the spelling of general Polish and under the influence of the graphic system of Portuguese – has undergone significant changes.
  • Jolanta Mędelska, Maria Jankowiak-Rutkowska : On the unifi cation of the lexis used by national minorities in the USSR on selected examples from Soviet variants of Polish and German (the interwar period)

    The authors briefly present the history of two largest national minorities in the USSR: Poles and Germans. They outline their faith in tsarist Russia and in the Soviet Union.

    Their common history and everyday life resulted in the development of certain shared characteristics in the languages used by Soviet national minorities, in particular in their lexis, which is the authors’ focus. The paper points to circa 30 lexical Russicisms occurring in local variants of Polish and German. Some of them, e.g. ambar and Ambar, bałanda and Balanda, mużyk and Muschik, were used even as early as in tsarist Russia, others occurred after the revolution, in the 1920s and 1930s. New borrowings, common to Polish and German, are mainly Sovietisms (e.g. basmacz and Basmatsch, komsorg and Komsorg, smyczka and Smitschka) and lexis, the frequency of which has significantly increased in the new sociopolitical conditions (e.g. batrak and Batrak, putiowka and Putjowka), including orientalisms taken over from Russian (e.g. kiszłak and Kischlak).

    The paper presents mainly lexical units analogous to Soviet Polish and German, that is formal and semantic calques (see examples above) as well as derivational calques and semi-calques (e.g. Ger. Cheftum or Dorfsowjet), semantic calques (e.g. Pol. dziesiętnik) and derivatives formed based on a Russian root (e.g. Pol. batraczka and Ger. Batrakin).

  • Magdalina Mitrewa : Communication competence of Polish-speaking Bulgarians in the context of Karl R. Popper’s indeterminism

    The aim of these studies was to select a set of representative linguistic errors resulting from the influence of the primary language and the target language at some stage in the acquisition of a foreign/second language and the analysis of the command of Polish among Polish-speaking Bulgarians.

    The application of Karl Popper’s principles allowed a comparison and visualisation of the results of the analysis of the material by clearly presenting the characteristics of quantitative mistakes in a readable form of a table and charts, a detailed classification of the material, and gave a clear picture of their performance characteristics.


  • Agnieszka Frączek : Polnisches Lesebuch, Lexikon und Sprachlehre by Krzysztof Celestyn Mrongovius, or (not only) Polish grammar


  • Stanisław Dubisz : M. Cybulski (scientifi c ed.), Wybór tekstów z dziejów języka polskiego (A selection of texts about the history of Polish), vol. I–II, Łódź 2015
  • Monika Kaczor : A. Cegieła, P. Kuciński, L. Polkowska, M. Stępień, Studia z etyki słowa (Studies of the ethics of the word), Warsaw 2014