ISSUE 2 / 2011


  • Krzysztof Maćkowiak : Language Awareness – Problem with the Definition

    The term language awareness is often recalled in contemporary works on linguistics. In the Polish language, one can talk about at least five types of definition: normative, descriptive and recording, psycholinguistic, sociolonguistic, cultural and anthropological. A view which confirms the existence of ontogenetic and social (collective) variant of language awareness, gained a wide acceptance.

    We suggest to perceive in language awareness people’s capacity to collect and analyse knowledge, judgements and views of a lingusitic nature, with the help of which we regulate processes of verbal communication. Within the various elements of language awareness, three main components can be identified: strictly grammatical knowledge, beliefs about the rules of linguistic behaviour, all other judgements relating to the speech as an emanation of collective life and the product of culture.

  • Beata Milewska : De facto as a metatextual Expression
    The issue of the paper is lexem de facto which is used in contemporary Polish in metatextual function – as ‛statement about statement’. The syntactic and semantic features of this expression were analysed and its communicative function in the system sender-receiver of the text was examined. As the collected material shows, de facto is, in Polish language, a modal (epistemic) particle whose meaning could be paraphrased as: ‛I can consider the fact’ (in understood oposition to the fact declared). De facto acts as persuasive, denying the receiver the opportunity to verify the judgement proclaimed.
  • Agata Hącia : What Kind of Character are we? Reflections on Lexic-Semantic Connectivity of a Lexem charakter [Character]
    The aim of the article is to characterise connectivity limitations of a lexem charakter, obligatory in the scheme X ma Y charakter/charakter Y [X has Y character/character Y], where X = a noun, Y = an adjective/adjective participle. The material was semantically analysed, referring to the concept of image schema. The research shows that, besides semantic considerations, the collocation of a lexem charakter is determined by a semantic relation of comparing two objects: the features of an object known to the subject are transferred to the characterised object and appear in the expression Y charakter. This kind of relation is necessary when the collocation of a lexem charakter appears in the meaning to describe objects and phenomena, but is not obligatory (and can even be impossible) when a lexem charakter describes psychological features of a human being.
  • Jowita Latko : Italian Borrowings in Erazm Rykaczewski’s Słownik języka polskiego. The Dictionary Microstructure

    The issue of the article is the way of description of lexical Italian borrowings in Erazm Rykaczewski’s Słownik języka polskiego. In further paragraphs, particular elements of entries of units qualified as from Italian language were discussed. I analysed the units which are accompanied by information about the origin with the abbreviation (z włos.) [(from Italian)] and the entries supplied with qualifier indicating two possible languages which pass on borrowings. The entries whose information about the origin has a descriptive character, were also taken into consideration.

    They were not taken into account the units whose structure indicates Italian origin and which were recognized as Italian borrowings in other lexicographic studies being not recognized as Italian borrowings by the author of the dictionary. The analysis of the material enables to assume that the entries marked as Italian borrowings do not differ substantially among themselves. The differing element is the order of particular components of the dictionary microstructure. Some elements of the dictionary microstructure reveal similarities to two other lexicographic studies from New Polish era. This could indicate the, widely discussed in literature, dependence of Rykaczewski’s dictionary.



  • Ewelina Kwapień : Julia Legomska, PAŃSTWO, NARÓD, OJCZYZNA w dawnej polszczyźnie. Leksykalno-semantyczny opis pojęć, Katowice 2010
  • Marek Ruszkowski : Piotr Zbróg, Budowa i składnia podmiotu szeregowego w polszczyźnie do 1939 roku, Kielce 2010


  • Ewa Rudnicka : How and to Whom – on Some Attitudes towards Others
  • Dorota Połowniak-Wawrzonek : The Expression Alleluja i do przodu [Hallelujah and Ahead] and its Modifications in Contemporary Polish