ISSUE 4 / 2012


  • Jolanta Chojak : The peculiar osobiście [personally]
    The author analyses the manners in which the adverb osobiście [personally] functions in the contemporary texts. She takes into consideration the properties which are normally ignored in lexicographic studies. What is observed is above all the prosodic characteristics of the utterances including this expression and their thematic-rhematic structure, the connectivity with intensity exponents (particularly bardzo [very]) as well as the connectivity with the expressions used in a predicative manner and with the names used in a referential manner. She finds interpretive traces among the latter, which permits the explanation of the high popularity of this expression in the contemporary texts.
  • Beata Milewska : Syntactic features of the expression bądź co bądź [after all]
    The paper poses a question about the syntactic features and the grammatical status of the expression bądź co bądź [after all] in the contemporary Polish language. This multi-segment expression with a syntactic structure represents today a separate linguistic unit and satisfies the definition criteria of a class of particles (as defined by J. Wajszczuk – O metatekście, Warszawa 2005): it is a paratactem that opens a grammatically unmarked item at its right side. It is sometimes separated in texts as of a parenthesis, which is interpreted as a signal for an additional verbal operation of the speaker.
  • Mariola Wołk : On the meaning of the expression ktoś plecie, że_ [somebody chatters that_]
    The discussions presented in this paper pertain to the expression pleść [chatter] which refers to linguistic behaviours. In the first part of the text the shape of linguistic units with the word pleść is determined. Then a detailed analysis of the meaning of the expression ktoś plecie, że_ [somebody chatters that_] is performed. It takes into consideration above all the relation between what someone chatters about and the notions of untruth and lack of sense. The form of an utterance which can be related with the verb pleść, że_ [to chatter that_] proves to be significant, especially its internal ordering of the judgments which constitute the speech evaluated in this manner. The basic theses on the meaning of the analysed expression are collected in a mere proposal of its explication.
  • Marta Zuchowicz : Przypominasz sobie? [Do you recall?] – on syntactic and semantic features of verbs including the form przypominać/przypomnieć sobie [recall]
    The subject under analysis is two Polish verbs: (ktośi) przypomniał sobie, że_ [(somebodyi), recalled that_] and (ktośi) przypomina sobie, że_ [(somebodyi), recalls that_]. The author proposes to acknowledge both these verbs as separate linguistic units and presents arguments in support. The fundamental difference between the analysed verbs is that only the former creates an aspectual opposition. In spite of the ostensibly identical syntactic formula of both units, a more thorough analysis of their syntactic and semantic features allows to elicit yet other differences. In addition, the paper includes certain hypotheses concerning the components which were to occur in semantic representations of the presented verbs.
  • Małgorzata Gębka-Wolak : Weź się zastanów! The problem with the grammatical status of the pre-imperative weź

    he paper is an attempt to determine the grammatical status of the sequences of the words weź, weźmy, weźcie, which collocate with imperative forms of other verb lexemes. The methodologically presented analysis is established on the grounds of structural linguistics. The direct inspiration for raising the subject was the critical reading of the description of the sequences in question presented by A. Śledź in „Poradnik Językowy” in 2001. What particularly encourages the discussion is attributing an empty connotation to the pre-imperative weź, weźmy and interpreting them as the centres of exclamatory utterances.

    As a result of research, it was proved such expressions as weź się zastanów, weźmy zróbmy, weźcie wytłumaczcie are subordinate structures in terms of distribution, built with the superordinate imperative form of any verb lexeme and one of three forms of the lexeme WEŹ, which are diverse in person and number. The syntactic features allow to classify WEŹ as an adverbial particle. WEŹ is a semantically empty unit, the function of which is to enhance the illocutionary force of imperative utterances. It may be at the same time a component of all types of imperative utterances, that is directive, preventive, permissive, and those which express the inability to perform an action or the futility of effort.

  • Ewa Walusiak : The attempt to classify the non-nominal coś grammatically
    The subject of the description is the manner in which the non-nominal unit coś behaves in an utterance. Thus far the uses of coś have not been subjected to detailed metatextual analyses as part of the contemporarily proposed grammatical classifications of vocabulary. When striving for the grammatical classification of the examined unit, the findings of Wajszczuk (2005) and Grochowski (2001, 2003, 2008) are taken into consideration, and the solutions developed by Laskowski (1998) are treated as auxiliary. The following features of the unit’s behaviour in an utterance are subject to observation: the capacity to constitute a context-dependent utterance on its own (§ 2.), grammatical (§ 3.) and semantic (§ 4.) restrictions to connectivity, mobility in an utterance (§ 5.) and modelling the mode of an utterance (§ 6.). The examined unit may be classified as a paratactem (Wajszczuk 2005) with the reservation that certain semantic values of the lexical neighbourhood are blocked.



  • Yordanka Ilieva-Cygan : Karol Wojtyła – Jan Paweł II. Słowa prawdy i życia. Szkice lingwistyczne, red. Kazimierz Ożóg, Bożena Taras, Rzeszów 2010
  • Magdalena Stasieczek-Górna : Przemysław P. Gębal, Dydaktyka kultury polskiej w kształceniu językowym cudzoziemców. Podejście porównawcze, Kraków 2010
  • Małgorzata Mielcarek : Liliana Madelska, Discovering Polish, Kraków 2010


  • Ewa Rudnicka : To the positions
  • Roman Szul : Does Dutch mean ‛duński’? On an error in English-Polish translations