ISSUE 3 / 2017


  • Alina Naruszewicz-Duchlińska : Types of linguistic manipulations used in e-mail spam
    The aim of this paper is to present the types of manipulation used by spammers. Polish studies of linguistics have not made attempts at categorising this group of electronic mail to date and therefore this paper presents a new element of linguistic research on specific aspects of online communication. The knowledge of the presented typology could help separate the useful correspondence from malicious messages. Nine spam categories were distinguished: information about a bargain, alleged formalities to be completed, pretended continuation of a contact, fake job offers, fictitious personal advertisements, “private” messages, alarming messages, anticipation of suspicions, promises of financial profit. The source of the material was 150 e-mails, which were examined with the use of the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the contents of the messages.
  • Anna Tereszkiewicz : Przykro nam to słyszeć :( (We are sorry to hear that) – reactions of telecommunication companies to their customers’ complaints and claims published on Twitter
    This paper is dedicated to telecommunication companies’ reactions and responses to critical opinions, complaints and claims published by their customers on Twitter, a microblogging website. The manner in which service providers respond to negative comments and complaints of their customers seems crucial in the process of creating and reinforcing a given company’s image online. The aim of the analysis was to determine the communication strategies used by service providers in response to negative comments of their customers and the impact of such strategies on the company image and customer relationships. Given the specificity of Twitter, the analysis was also intended to identify the influence, if any, of the medium on the form of the interactions and the communication strategies employed. The research proves that the most commonly used strategies of reacting to customer complaints and claims are requests for information, apologies, explanations, as well as underestimation of the misconduct and rejection of the complaint.
  • Małgorzata Nowak : The Word of God as a product. On the methods of presenting and advertising contemporary editions of the Bible online

    The object of the author’s interest is the methods of presenting and advertising Polish-language editions of the Bible – treated as a commercial product on the bookselling market. The role of the sketch is documentary, it is intended to supplement the knowledge of online religious marketing.

    Formally diversified paratexts (stretched on the scale from a summary of the values of the publication to collage texts with scientific inserts, to separate websites dedicated to a publishing series or a given edition), apart from informative fragments, contain advertising ones, presented in the convention of an invitation encouraging the purchase of product x, its recommendation or a publishing request. The publishing descriptions combine the following discourses: informative, advertising and scientific in the area of Bible studies and partly – in particular in the illustrated Bibles – the history of art.

    The overview of sources – conducted from the pragmalinguistic angle – leads the author to the conclusion that persuasive marketing strategies are clearly marked there: the strategy of authentication, authority, high self-esteem (sender-oriented strategies) as well as honour and benefit (recipient-oriented strategies). As regards the publishing distinction and valuation of certain editions of the Bible, their linguistic aspect (translation principles) is secondary.

  • Grzegorz Majkowski : Dialogism in election leaflets
    This paper touches upon the issue of dialogism on the example of election leaflets. The source material used were the leaflets distributed on the Polish territory during elections to the Polish Sejm and Senate as well as presidential and local government elections since 1918, when Poland regained independence. It was assumed that dialogism belongs to any text, including a leaflet. I was acknowledged that a dialogue is a form of language existence related to its social, communicative nature. Characteristic textual linguistic exponents of dialogism were distinguished: addressative forms, e.g. Bracia Chłopi! (Fellow Peasants!), forms with the so-called inclusive we, e.g. M u s i m y zwyciężyć (W e m u s t win), second person singular imperative verbs, e.g. oddaj (cast) (a vote), przeczytaj (read), personal pronouns and their inflected forms, e.g. proszę W a s o głos (literally: I’m asking for y o u r votes), an official salutation państwo (you) (a polite equivalent of the pronoun wy (you)), e.g. Będę [...] realizował P a ń s t w a pomysły (I will… fulfil y o u r ideas), possessive pronouns: twój (your), nasz (our), e.g. Proszę o Twój głos (literally: I’m asking for your vote); pomysły na rozwój N a s z e g o Miasta (ideas for the development of o u r city), interrogatives, e.g. Czy nie powinno być więcej żłobków […] w naszym mieście? (Shouldn’t there be more nurseries… in our city?). The category of dialogism expands the knowledge of intratextual and extratextual relations. This is how it brings the knowledge about types of utterances closer. The example of dialogism in election leaflets clearly demonstrates that a genre is an open and dynamic structure which adapts to the social and cultural context.
  • Magdalena Puda-Blokesz : Everyday (non-)ancient idioms
    This paper is a linguistic attempt at outlining the area of the Polish phraseology of the ancient provenance. It presents the meanings, abundance and diversity of Anticisms, that is language units which are evidence of the influence of the ancient Greek and Roman culture on Polish. Apart from the idioms which are really ancient, that is language units whose bond with antiquity is real and sensed (e.g. pyrrusowe zwycięstwo (Pyrrhic victory) or puszka Pandory (Pandora’s box)), established formally and through cultural motivation, there is a significant group of commonly known petrified collocations which could be called ancient only genetically or (non-)ancient (e.g. marnować czas (to waste time) or o wilku mowa (to speak of the devil)). Therefore, the expression everyday (non-)ancient idioms covers the Anticisms which: (1) are commonly known and used at present, stylistically neutral, colloquial, less frequently formal, (2) have a neutral and universal motivation related to the observation of the reality, (3) have an identifiable ancient source, yet their bond with the source is not sensed by language users and the ancient textual and cultural context of the idioms is not usually necessary to understand their figurative meanings.
  • Magdalena Hawrysz : Evaluation criteria for borrowings in the 19th century (on the margin of the book Barbaryzmy i dziwolągi językowe (Barbarisms and linguistic oddities) by Józef Bliziński)
    This sketch falls into the area of research on the language awareness of the past centuries and is a contribution to the history of prescriptivism. It is dedicated to borrowings and their evaluation in the period of the partitions, when language became the basic support for the national identification. The object of the analysis is a small book titled Barbaryzmy I dziwolągi językowe (Barbarisms and linguistic oddities). The aim of this study is to identify the evaluation criteria for borrowings which are manifest in metalinguistic comments. The analysis of the guide permitted the identification of 8 evaluation criteria of such language elements. These are the categories of nationality, adequacy, system, economy, usage, cultural as well as literary and writer authority, function, tradition. The criterion of aesthetics is revealed only in the stylistic layer and should be considered the same as nationality. The guide argues that, although in relation to foreign-language linguistic innovations the determinant was the prospect of national bondage, other indicators were equally, or at times more, important. It could be said that the criterion which is called nationality today had an ambiguous status even in the period of the partitions.


  • Aleksandra Żurek : Gramatyka współczesnej polszczyzny kulturalnej w zarysie (Outlined grammar of the contemporary cultural Polish language) by Zenon Klemensiewicz


  • Ewa Woźniak : Agnieszka Sieradzka-Mruk, “Radość i nadzieja. Smutek i trwoga” w drodze krzyżowej. Wybrane aspekty ewolucji dyskursu religijnego w XX wieku na przykładzie leksyki dotyczącej uczuć (“Joy and hope. Sorrow and terror” in the Way of the Cross. Selected aspects of the evolution of the religious discourse in the 20th century on the example of the lexis related to feelings), Kraków 2016
  • Anna Jaworska : Halina Wiśniewska, Polszczyzna w utworach Elżbiety Drużbackiej poetki saskiej (1698–1765): rozważania lingwistyczno-kulturowe (The Polish language in the works by Elżbieta Drużbacka, a poet in the Saxon times (1698–1765): linguistic and cultural discussions), Lublin 2016


  • Stanisław Dubisz : Dobra zmiana (the good change) and Polska w ruinie (Poland in ruins)