Jadwiga Kowalikowa : On Vulgarisms in Linguistic Competence of the Young
What is striking for a contemporary Polish youth researcher is the great accumulation of vulgarisms, which has become its characteristic feature, manifested not only in informal situations but also in formal ones. The research on the reasons for this linguistic behavior and on the expected reactions was conducted among Polish Philology students. They were considered representatives of the examined age group and, at the same time, as individuals of a higher than average linguistic competence. They explain their tendency to use vulgarisms as a way to work out stress, to use their %liberty of speech’, diversity and a form of protest against polite conventions, a manifestation of the %easy-going’ attitude. They indicate the inheritance of %the old Polish nobility gene’ as being responsible for their tendency to talk hard, as well as the influence of media language. In their opinion, linguistic sensitivity to the original meaning of words has diminished. Their phrases express the speaker’s intentions and emotions faster and in a more suggestive way, with a humoristic, amusing effect. The collected material allows us to conclude that the reasons for using vulgarisms by the young are behavioral, psychological, social, cultural, communicative and educational. The development of vulgarisms is accompanied by de-vulgarization, manifested by the so-called euphemisms. This is in turn outnumbered by another vulgarization of words which were initially only slightly offensive. Their indicators and operators may also be prosodic means, i.e. intonation and pause usage.
Anna Kisiel : Grammatical Classification of the So-Called Quantifying Adverbs
The text is a reflection on the differences between the adverbs class and the one of particles. It is based on Jadwiga Wajszczuk’s innovative meta-text interpretation. The analysis of quantifying adverbial units (such as zawsze (always), nigdy (never), na ogół (usually), przeważnie (generally), zazwyczaj (normally), zwykle (as a rule), czasem (sometimes), od czasu do czasu (from time to time), frequency adverbs like często (often), rzadko (seldom), z rzadka (rarely) and duration adverbs (stale (constantly), ciągle (continuously), wciąż (all the time), nadal (still), is based on examination of topic structure of expressions and the above mentioned units. It leads to the assumption that their current classification needs verification. According to detailed hypotheses, the units przeważnie, na ogół, zazwyczaj, zwykle and z reguły belong to the class of particles whereas units stale, ciągle, wciąż, nadal as well as często, rzadko, z rzadka, czasem, od czasu do czasu, niekiedy, although they have some non-adverbial features (it is about a possibility to relate them to an attributive verb), are closer by their function to adverbs than to particles.
Monika Kresa : The 19th Century Jewish Antropolexemes and Their Position in the Process of Jewish Surname Formation on the Area Bordering Mazovia and Podlasie (the Stoczek Parish)
The article is generally based on the Roman Catholic certification volumes of the Stoczek parish from the years 1812 and 1813, which register names of people belonging to Moses faith. The aim of the paper is to present the role of the people in surname formation of Jewish people living in the area between Mazovia and Podlasie, as well as to compare their cultural status in the history of the Jews belonging to the Stoczek parish. The analysis has also a methodological role, as formations registered in the books are not surnames in the linguistic and legal sense, thus the term antropolexeme is offered instead. The work deals with the problem of Jewish 19th century names etymologically, culturally, typologically and in a word-formation way.
Aneta Kołodziejczyk-Trawińska : Given Names under Polish Law – the Law and Given Names
According to contemporary Polish law, naming and name changing issues are mainly regulated by two legal acts: Vital Records Law and Given Names and Surnames Changes Act. These two documents indicate the procedure of giving and changing names. The first one refers to names which should not be given, whereas the second one talks about cases in which given names can be changed.
The article presents procedural issues connected with giving and changing names. In the part devoted to giving names, the author discusses, among other things, the mode of given names registration, and issues connected with giving more than two names, humiliating names, names in the diminutive form, names which make it impossible to distinguish the sex of a child or foreign names. The second part of the article introduces the problem of changing names in doubt-raising situations.
The sample material analyzed in the article consists of administrative courts statements interpreted from the point of view of an onomast linguist.
Aleksandra Sulej : %What Is the Truth?’ On Defining and Evaluating the Truth (Based on a Survey)
The article is an analysis of a part of the material gathered in a social research concerning the truth. I was mainly interested in respondents’ definitions of the truth with reference to philosophical works on the issue. Some of the respondents referred to the classical – correspondence theory, some pointed to the onthic theory, most of them, however, understood the truth in the way which cannot be found in any philosophical theories, as the opposite of a lie – telling the truth. Another issue raised in the article is the objective or subjective character of the truth. Some of the respondents were in favor of the former concept while some others were advocating the latter. The last question is about evaluation of the truth. Based on the quoted antonyms of truth and words associated with it, one may assume that it is a positive value for the respondents.
Dorota Kopczyńska : From Cieplica to Spa, or the Linguistic History of the Fashion for Balneotherapy
Based on the example of words from a selected semantic area %zakład balneoterapeutyczny (balneotherapy centre) and/or miejsce ze źródłami wód leczniczych (spa centre)’, the article presents the linguistic history of fashion for balneotherapy. The position of the latest borrowing spa as a gap filling in contemporary Polish lexical system is depicted in the context of semantic, usage area and connotation changes of notions registered between the 16th and 21st centuries: cieplica, zdrój, krynica, wody, kąpiel, kurort, uzdrowisko, showing decreasing and then increasing interest in this kind of therapy.