ISSUE 7 / 2015


  • Marzanna Uździcka, Rafał Zarębski : The role of epistolography in teaching the history of the Polish language at universities (on the margin of a new selection of texts for the history of the Polish language, which is in the course of preparation)
    This paper overviews a specially selected presentation of Polish epistolography collected in a selection of texts prepared as part of the research project (no. 0089/FNiTP/H11/08/2011) Teksty do historii używania języka narodowego z aneksami (Texts for the history of using the national language with annexes), pursued under supervision of Prof. dr hab. Marek Cybulski, in the context of the role of this type of sources in teaching the history of the Polish language at universities. The authors of this paper assume that in the face of continuous and deepening deprecation of that subject and manifestation of disinterest in or even reluctance for studying the difficult issues of the history of language, an anthology of source texts prepared in a manner attractive in terms of erudition and materials could encourage students to explore the subject matter of the history of language. A special place in such a selection is given to correspondence. Hence, a corpus of circa a hundred of private and official letters from the period from the 15th to 21st century, which certify both model genre realisation and variant approaches, were prepared as part of the project. Based on the collected letters, the evolution of the old graphy, realisation of phonetic phenomena, and formation of the grammatical system can be demonstrated during classes in the history of language. It might be extremely interesting for students to demonstrate the impact of external considerations on pragmalinguistic phenomena regarding communication competence, genology and linguistic etiquette.
  • Anna Ciołek : Participial elliptical clauses in letters by C.K. Norwid
    This paper is dedicated to an analysis of syntactic structures with uninflected participles in C. K. Norwid’s correspondence. The research has shown that the poet used participial elliptical clauses (imiesłowowy równoważnik zdania) consciously, in compliance with the standard applicable in the second half of the 19th c. The analysis was carried out based on the criterion of time relation preservation. Statements comprising present participles express an action performed at the same time as the action expressed in the main clause, while perfect participles in Norwid’s correspondence usually express an action preceding the action expressed in the main clause or, occasionally, the following one. Rare cases of using p.e.c. where the principle of time relation preservation was breached were recorded. A significant criterion for the discussed structures is their semantic function arising from the possibility to transform p.e.c. into an adverbial clause. This criterion of division has proved that structures fulfilling the function of time and causal clauses are most frequent. The high frequency of participles brings Norwid’s correspondence close to the literary genre.
  • Paulina Michalska-Górecka : Inny (different) in the eyes of the 16th-century Poles (reconnaissance)
    The aim of this paper is an attempt to demonstrate who the 16th-century Poles living in a multi-ethnic and multi-religious country called inny (different) and an attempt to prove that the meaning of this lexeme expands under the influence of political and territorial transformations. In the 16th century, inny is not only ‘not this one, not such’, the meaning of this lexeme gets closer to the meaning of the lexeme obcy (strange), understood as ‘being from outside a given community (nation, culture)’, or of the lexeme apostata (an apostate) defined as ‘a dropout, a dissenter from the faith’. The rich lexicographic material of Słownik polszczyzny XVI wieku (Dictionary of the 16th-century Polish language) documenting the use of the adjective inny shows that, despite the ethnic and cultural as well as religious diversity of the large country, these notations refer mainly to religious issues. It can be inferred from the analysed material that religious diversity was more visible in the everyday life of a 16th-century Pole than ethnic diversity.
  • Izabela Kępka : The viewpoint versus linguistic valuation of God in Sonety i inne wiersze (Sonnets and other poems) by Hieronim Kajsiewicz

    This paper is dedicated to the issue of linguistic valorisation of God in Sonety i inne wiersze (Sonnets and other poems) by Hieronim Kajsiewicz. The works published in Paris in 1833 come from the period when the author’s religious views were formed.

    In this paper, I am using Jadwiga Puzynina’s valuation concept dependent on the changing viewpoint of the lyrical I.

    The analysis has shown that the works coming from the period preceding the author’s conversion create God as weak and lonely in His heaven. God – Creator loses His attributes of the only, omnipotent and immortal God in the poetry from before the author’s conversion.

    A believer valorises God as the greatest good, the centre of the universe, light. Positive valuation of the Creator is related to His goodness and mercy. For a faithful Pole living in the Romantic era, the highest value of God is being the Saviour of the Polish nation.

    The linguistic devices serving the purpose of valuating God from both viewpoints is strongly expressive lexis and metaphors aimed at persuasive impact on the addressee, willingness to persuade him or her into the sender’s views.

  • Justyna Walczak : Jacek Przybylski’s translation practice in light of the n-tuple cultural and linguistic fi ltration theory
    This paper aims at indicating sources of translation difficulties and describing Jacek Przybylski’s translation techniques. The analysis was performed with the instruments of the n-tuple cultural and linguistic filtration theory, an analytical method developed by the author as part of linguistic research on translatability of language games. The material base comprised 84 textual attempts from Jacek Przybylski’s translation. The results of the analysis clearly demonstrate that most translation interferences occur as early as at the stage of transferisation. The most common cause of the interferences is the inability to convey the form and meaning of a given game. In the situation of relative untranslatability, the translator’s priority is to reconstruct the language game reflecting the source semantics. In the majority of cases, Przybylski manages to find a way to introduce a language game to his translation. The source of omission is normally allusions to sex, which are an extremely strongly tabooed element. Phonic linguistic phenomena, such as homophony or tautograms, also cause many difficulties to the translator. The result of the analysis is a description of the techniques used by Jacek Przybylski, who stands out by his high linguistic competence and awareness of the possibility to modify the translation linguistically. The translation techniques applied by Przybylski are operations used also in the contemporary translation studies.
  • Marcin Jakubczyk : French and Polish lexicography until the end of the 17th century
    This paper discusses the history of compiling French and Polish in seven, more and less extensive and still insufficiently explored, multi-language lexicons published over the 16th and 17th centuries. All these works contain the compiled Polish and French vocabulary, placed among words originating from other modern languages, as well as from classical languages. This means that the source language in the majority of the analysed dictionaries is neither Polish nor French, but Latin (with the exception of the dictionary by Mesgnien-Meniński, the guide by Miselli and Gazophylacium by Ch. Warmer). The analysed publications include large dictionaries (Calepinus, Megiser, Mesgnien), but also, for instance, phrasebooks published in a pocket-sized format (Hexaglosson). This paper proves that not all works considered dictionaries to date may be called so (in particular Orbis pictus by Comenius, Il Burattino veridico by Miselli and Gazophylacium by Warmer) because they represent a completely different type of publications (a textbook, itinerarium and phrasebook). What follows is that certain statements regarding qualifications of specific works containing a linguistic material, which are established in academic research, should be subject to revision and verification.
  • Sylwia Przęczek-Kisielak : Intra-dialectal diversifi cation in Lesser Poland in the 14th and 15th centuries – on the basis of judicial oath formulas
    This paper is based on the material of the judicial oath formulas of the 14th and 15th centuries from the area of central Lesser Poland (Krakowskie region) and northern Lesser Poland (Sandomierskie, Chęcińskie, Radomskie regions). The thesis material was excerpted for the purpose of analysing selected linguistic (mainly phonetic) characteristics of judicial oath formulas from Lesser Poland and finding an answer to the question about the pronunciation characteristic of that province in the 14th and 15th centuries as well as about internal diversification of the Lesser Polish dialect. On this basis, it was possible to identify dialectal differences at three levels: characteristics differentiating Lesser Poland from other provinces, differences between central and northern Lesser Poland, and finally dialectal pronunciation diversities among people living in northern Lesser Poland – lands only: Sandomierska, Chęcińska and Radomska.


  • Anna Just : Enchiridion polonicum by Jan Moneta – a complete and perfect course of Polish



  • Władysław T. Miodunka : Mirosława Sagan-Bielawa, Dziedzictwo pozaborowe. Społeczna świadomość językowa Polaków w drugiej Rzeczypospolitej (Post-partitions heritage. Social awareness of Poles in the Second Polish Republic), Kraków 2014