ISSUE 2 / 2019


  • Mirosław Michalik, Stanisław Milewski, Katarzyna Kaczorowska-Bray, Anna Solak : The speaking rate of physiologically ageing persons against the speaking rate of children’s utterances – a comparative analysis.

    This paper presents the results of: 1. measurements of selected parameters determining the rate of utterances, 2. comparative analyses of specific parameters in two study groups: physiologically ageing people, falling into the “old-old” category, and nine-year-old pupils with no developmental or language disorders.

    When gathering the study material with the use of measurement tools (the Audacity program) and its statistical processing (tests: Shapiro–Wilk, Mann–Whitney, Fisher– Snadecor), the following parameters-indicators allowing the prediction of the speech tempo were taken into consideration and analysed: 1. basic: the average speaking rate (speech sounds, syllables + duration of pauses), the average articulation rate (speech sounds, syllables), the average share of pauses in utterances (number + percentage data); 2. supplementary: the average duration of all pauses, the average duration of proper pauses, the average duration of filled pauses, the average duration of partly filled pauses.

  • Ewa Binkuńska : Articulation of consonant clusters in selected diagnostic techniques applied in speech therapy.
    There is no diagnostic test dedicated to examining the realisation of consonant clusters in a speech therapy. At the same time, articulation of consonant compounds is one of the criteria for classifying articulation according to styles. The undertaken research is an attempt to answer the question: What is the relationship between the method of examining articulation and realization of consonant clusters? The diagnostic tests discussed in this paper include reading out single lexemes, repeating words, speaking spontaneously, and reading out a continuous text passage. The study sample was composed of persons with no articulatory disorders, whose articulation had already been formed. The specific questions asked in the course of the research concerned the following issue: What are the qualitative and quantitative differences in consonant cluster realisation in the individual diagnostic tests? The study was supposed to determine diagnostic options with respect to consonant compound articulation.
  • Joanna Senderska : Language acquisition in the Asperger syndrome.
    This paper, being an overview and a synthesis, is dedicated to language acquisition by children with Asperger’s, an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). According to the DSM-5, the latest classification of mental disorders by the American Psychiatric Association, the Asperger syndrome should be discussed as a condition along a certain continuum of autistic disorders, or a special form of autism, rather than as a separate type of disorders. Children suffering from Asperger’s find it difficult to develop communication skills and, partly, age-appropriate language skills, which translates into disturbed language communication. The disturbances involve difficulties in acquiring and applying social rules as well as specific narrow interests. The author, referring to the rich, mainly Polish-language, relevant literature presents the problems with acquiring linguistic knowledge by children with the Asperger syndrome at individual layers of linguistic, i.e. phonological, lexical, syntactic, and pragmatic, functioning.
  • Dorota Lipiec, Izabela Więcek-Poborczyk : Therapy of rhotacism in dyslalia.
    Rhotacism, Lat. rhotacismus, is an incorrect realisation of the phoneme /r/. Depending on the type of the phoneme realisation disturbance, mogirhotacism, pararhotacism, rhotacism proper, and complex disturbances (deformed substitutes) are distinguished. In all cases of non-standard realisations of phoneme /r/ by patients with dyslalia, it is necessary to introduce a speech therapy. This paper presents a detailed design of a speech therapy when eliciting and reinforcing sound [r] (the basic variant of phoneme /r/). This proposition of a speech therapy for rhotacism arose from many years of speech therapy practice and the knowledge of Polish phonetics and dyslalia. The demonstrated method was modified and improved as the knowledge expanded and experience increased.
  • Natalia Siudzińska : Planning a speech therapy for a child with open nasality.
    Palatopharyngeal incompetence in children with cleft soft (or soft and hard) palate significantly disturbs speech development and can even lead to the situation where only vowels and nasal consonants can be distinguished in a child’s speech. When planning a speech therapy for such a child, a therapist should take many aspects into account, the most important being anatomical conditions created by a surgeon in the palatopharyngeal sphincter and the articulatory apparatus fitness level, in particular as regards muscles of the palate and the pharynx. This will permit an appropriate identification of the therapy objectives and planning of a range of measures to this end. The paper presents two speech therapy paths in the case of open nasality depending on the cause of the palatopharyngeal incompetence: anatomical or functional.
  • Edward Łuczyński : Dyslect as a variant of biolect.

    Popular studies of internal diversity of the Polish language mention the variant called biolect at times. The notion of biolect has covered variants of language depending on the user’s gender or age to this date. The author of this text proposes the term to be expanded by a variant of language characterised by various speech disorders. The suggested name of the variant is dyslect. The internal division of a dyslect is based on speech disorder classifications applied in speech therapy, i.e. dyslalia, stuttering, aphasia, dysarthria, oligophasia, schizophasia, dyslexia and dysgraphia.

  • Hubert Olborski : Style-forming functions of prosodic system components: stress, intonation and pause.
    The aim of this paper is to discuss the influence of delimiting functions of prosodic system components on the creation of a style of expression. I expanded Adam Kulawik’s theoretical concepts in the study. The scholar classifies them into the sphere of stylistic choices, where mainly the prosodic character of expression is determined: scansion, prose or verse. I call the superiority of one factor in the division of the stream of speech over others the assumption of the style-forming primary function. The remaining factors assume then the style-forming secondary functions. The use of stress in the position of the style-forming primary function gives rise to scansion. The use of intonation in the position of the style-forming primary function leads to prose. The use of pause in the position of the style-forming primary function contributes to verse. When working on the paper, I employed the method of analysing and criticising the relevant literature in order to reveal gaps in the existing state of knowledge of style-forming functions of prosodic system components.


  • Marcin Jakubczyk : On the history of the Polish language in France: Zasady gramatyki... (Principles of the Polish grammar…) for the purposes of the Polish School in Paris (1864)