The author of the article reconstructs the picture of St. Joseph documented in the manuscriptal collection of 357 Christmas Carols texts which come from the 17th and 18th century. The manuscript was drawn up to be used in Carmelite Monastery in Cracow. It was issued in 1980 by Barbara Krzyżaniak. The figure of St. Joseph appears in much about one quarter of the collection analyzed (precisely in 87 songs).
In the carols of solemn and sacred character, St. Joseph is presented in a static way, as one of figures worshiping the Holy Infant together with his Mother, shepherds and the Wise Men from the East. It is the approach based on the evangelic text.
We find a wider, more interesting and detailed picture of St. Joseph in the carols with an elaborated shepherd plot which uses apocryphal clues, Christmas plays and native folklore (folk way of imaging). In this case, St. Joseph appears as a grey-haired, bearded old man, a carpenter by profession, a careful protector of Marie and little Jesus who participates in nursing the Infant and playing with the shepherds by the crib. The picture is probably very close to the authentic image of an old, poor Polish peasant, respected by people but also treated a little more familiarly than other members of the Holy Family.
The article is sacrified to the axiological aspect of spiritual battle in the language of sermons by priest Hieronim Kajsiewicz. It shows the units of language and structure of the text which serve valuation, according to methodological recommendations of J. Puzynina connected with the axiological analysis. The evaluation of spiritual battle in the collection of speeches by Kajsiewicz was contrasted with the stereotypical views in the speaker’s environment.
The spiritual battle presented in Kajsiewicz’s sermons is the people’s action aiming to distinguish good from evil and to reject the last one. Spiritual battle combined with suffering leads to cleanse the sins – of both the single human being and the whole nation. Its final aim is Christ therefore salvation and eternal life. Its evaluation is always positive.
The article presents the analysis of the recent linguistic situation of the Poles living in the capital of Lithuania. Tha aim of the paper is to describe the linguistic consciousness of the Poles in Vilnius through the analysis of the respondents’ answers regarding: a) choice of the native language b) self-assessment of language skills c) assessment of the languages they speak. Multilingualism of the respondents as well as the use of language in public and private discourses is also analysed in the article.
The findings of the present study highlight tendencies of the development of the multilingualism within the Polish community in Vilnius – 84,5% of the respondents identified Polish as their native language (or one of the native languages) and claimed to possess good knowledge of Lithuanian, Russian and Polish.