The author discusses causes of borrowing foreign affixes within a language (a tendency to: differentiate the meanings, enrich the vocabulary of different stylistic inflections and synonymy). The consequences of the emergence of foreign formants in a language are the following: increase of formal means in prefixation and suffixation, the development of prefixal derivation; overcoming the barriers of parts of speech (in relation to prefixes), the rivarly between foreign and native formants within the limits of the same semantic classes, the emergence of series of derivates, multiplying the lexicon, filling in semantic gaps, strenghtening the semantic precision, the emergence of synonymic pairs, the presence of derivates with foreign formants in different stylistic inflections of the Polish Language.
The auhtor claims that these consequences leave their mark on many different language grounds: starting from word formation, through lexis and semantics, down to stylistic level.
The author follows the history of the title word family from the days of Middle Polish until the contemporary times, taking into consideration semantic changes. The perception of semantic transformations have been limited to specialization of meanings and shifting of semantic dominant. There have also appeared additional semantic components: the perceptive, visual matter was particularized with the way or aim of looking, enriched with physical activity – to pay sb a visit, or with emotional components – care for sb.
The author of the article also paid attention to a great number of phrases with the verb zaglądać listed from the Middle Polish period.
Historical word-formation has been the subject of multidisciplinary research for a few dozen years. Former literature does not, however, give the whole picture of word-formation processses from 16th century. There still haven’t been compiled denominal personal names. This fact became a motivation to take up research.
The author decided to apply diachronic analysis with the use of conceptual apparatus of a synchronic description. Due to the diachronic analysis it was possible to show the development of studied structures not only in the 16th century, but also in Old Polish and later centuries.
The study shows that denominal personal names that functioned in the Polish language from the 16th century: 1) were a marginal category limited to a small number of formations characterized with instability in formal means selection, 2) were mostly the names of people playing musical instruments, 3) were mostly derivated with a formant -nik, which appeared in one third of formations, rarely with a formant -ista, which was present in 28% of derivates, 4) were in most probably the 16th century’s neologisms, as two thirds of them were not registered in Słownik staropolski [Dictionary of Old Polish], 5) were characterized by long life span, as 44% of them did not decline, 6) up to modern times there remained mostly structures with a suffix -ista/-ysta that specializes in derivating personal formations from instruments’ names.
The Eponims connected with vocabulary related to weapons and armament were excerpted from dictionaries of Polish language: Old Polish, the Polish Language from 16th century, Linde’s, Vilnius, Warsaw and edited by Witold Doroszewski and Stanisław Dubisz. A total of 49 names were collected. The largest group consists of eponims related with people’s names and surnames and names of cities. Single names originate from geographical names as well as from names of coats of arms.
The majority of eponyms came into being naturally, on the basis of associations, but there are, however those which were created artificially to commemorate an important person for a particular society.
The author of the article concentrates on problems connected with excerption rules, classification and description of lexical material which is the basis of analysis of religious vocabulary in Żywoty świętych Stárego y Nowego Zakonu... Piotra Skargi.
Studies on the language of one of the most popular author in baroque epoch are part of the mainstream research concerned with religious Polish language from Counter Reformation period.
The author also tries to present classification of linguistic material based on two proposals of characteristics of lexical-semantic fields by S. Dubisz and I.M. Winiarska.