Stanisław Dubisz : The development of the Polish language of science – remarks for the sake of order
The Polish language of science has been developed in three stages: 1) until the mid-18th century, 2) until 1918, 3) in the 20th and 21st centuries. The first quasi-scientific texts come from the 15th century, while in the 16th and 17th centuries the Polish language as the language of science competed with Latin, and in the 19th century it became the dominant code. This evolution remains in relation with the separation of the areas, fields and disciplines of science: the 17th century – natural sciences, the 18th century – technical sciences, the 19th century – humanities and social sciences. Currently, separate languages of mathematical, technical, natural, medical, and social sciences as well as of humanities are observable. The role of English – as the global code of science – will depend on the civilisation development of ethnic communities and the global community in the future.
Iwona Wowro : „Dała tam raz armata ład”, and „Ta kawa ma wakat”. On solecisms in palindromes
The aim of the article is to search for fairly peculiar and sophisticated forms of solecisms bordering between literature and absurdity, where the Beginning is the End is the Beginning – in palindromic constructions. Palindromes as expressions of the linguistic image of the world and the virtually unlimited possibilities to create them lead to interesting descriptions and verification of conventionalised rules of the world perception and categorisation. The humorous aspect, rooted in both palindromes and solecisms, offers the double chance to escape from the orderly world with all its generally accepted regulations and the rigour of logical thinking and to set off on the journey into the land of creative and original language games, which awaken the dormant layers of imagination, force to undertake an intellectual effort, and lead to a different way of perceiving and organising the surrounding world. The most significant types of palindromes, the nature of solecisms and the most frequent types of solecistic deformations will be presented and discussed in the article.
Elżbieta Awramiuk : Specjalność [speciality] and specjalizacja [specialisation] in higher education – legislation versus usage
The aim of the article is to discuss how the terms specjalność [speciality] and specjalizacja [specialisation] function in the applicable legislation related to higher education and in the academic usage. The described terms, although not defined in legislation, are used by the legislator in a relatively uniform manner. In the academic circles, in turn, the terms specjalność and specjalizacja are employed in a customary, vague and locally diverse way, which is proved above all by the teaching offer on websites of the Polish universities’ units offering the major in Polish philology. The article provides suggestions of clarifying this undoubtedly complex issue.
Krystyna Bojałkowska : Adoptowałem psa [I adopted a dog] – on new uses of the lexemes adopcja, adoptować, zaadoptować [adoption, to adopt] in the contemporary Polish language
The lexemes ADOPCJA (‛adoption’), ADOPTOWAĆ, ZAADOPTOWAĆ (‛to adopt’), are recorded in most dictionaries of contemporary Polish, in dictionaries of correct Polish and dictionaries of loanwords only in one meaning: ‛taking a child of another as one’s own’, ‛to take a child of other parents as one’s own’. The author analyses the uses of forms of these lexemes in other meanings, which are not recorded in dictionaries of Polish (or are recorded only in some of them), e.g. adopcja zwierząt/psów/kotów (‛adoption of animals/dogs/cats’), adoptować/zaadoptować drzewo/rzekę/zabytek (‛to adopt a tree/river/listed heritage structure’). The author regards the influence of English as a probable reason for extending the connectivity of the analysed lexemes and associated neo-semantisation.
Swietłana Gaś : Poetic collocations with the noun oko [eye]
According to the volume Słownictwo współczesnej poezji polskiej. Listy frekwencyjne [Vocabulary of the contemporary Polish poetry. Frequency lists] by H. and T. Zgółkowie, the lexeme oko [eye] is the first noun on the ranking list and therefore it deserves special attention. The word may be even treated as a key word in the contemporary Polish poetry.
Poetic collocations with the lexeme oko are frequently individual in nature. From among 278 word combinations only 27 expressions are recorded by Słownik frazeologiczny [Phraseological dictionary] by S. Skorupka. In the poetic language eyes are głuche [deaf], ostre [sharp], nagie [naked], rozwiązane [untied], they pachną [smell], umierają [die], śmieją się różowo [laugh in pink], there are krzyżyki [crosses], gwiazdy [stars], wydma [dunes] in eyes, one can się zapatrzeć aż do utraty oczu [stare until losing the eyes] etc. The rich possibilities of lexical connectivity, including semantic connotations, of the lexeme oko are usually disregarded in the lexicographic practice. Yet, failure to incorporate the poetic usages of the most popular autosemantic words into the language education process deprives foreign language learners of a creative approach to language.
Yordanka Ilieva-Cygan : An attempt to characterise the language of automotive press advertisements
The article is an attempt to conduct a short analysis of the language
of selected press advertisements in terms of its function and the persuasion tools employed. The examined material includes automotive advertisements published in „Gazeta Wyborcza” and its Thursday’s supplement at that time „Wysokie obroty” from the period October–December 2007 and „Gazeta Wyborcza” from the period October–December 2009. The subject of the research is solely the part of advertisement called catchphrase. In the analysed automotive advertisements the poetic and impressive functions are dominant over the informative function of language, which is a result of the intention to trigger emotions and desired behaviours on the part of consumers. Several groups of catchphrases are distinguished in the article based on the criterion of the applied linguistic means, such as epithets and similes, the imperative mood, personification, metaphors, syntactic and phraseological parallelism. The listed means form a narrowly understood advertising style, as part of which above all schematisation and petrification of certain elements, and creation of a specific language convention are observable.