Stanisław Dubisz : Linguistic theory in applied linguistics – on the example of glottodidactics in Polish studies.
In the history of linguistics, the applied linguistics was
mainstream until the 18th c., while in the 19th and 20th c.
fundamental and theoretical linguistics prevailed. It is
only the past few decades that balance the proportions
between both types of linguistics, which motivate and
complement one another and use each other’s results.
This is contemporarily determined with servitude of
linguistics towards other fields of science and technology,
which naturally places disciplines related to applied
linguistics in the foreground and which is conditioned by
the modern civilisation’s utilitarianism.
Hanna Jadacka : Factors hampering the reception of compound and complex sentences.
Several compound and complex sentences are analysed in
this paper to prove that one of the major sources of
difficulties related to their comprehension is an artificial,
clumsily high number of grammatical subjects, and in
certain sentences – agents. The most significant effects of
its reduction (apart from the lexeme reduction), achieved
merely owing to editing efforts which condense the
content, are simplification, disambiguation and cohesion
of a given statement, and hence – increase in its values in
linguistic communication. Among the automatic factors
facilitating the achievement of such an effect are e.g. the
inclusion of the greatest possible number of lexemes in
syntactic patterns resulting from the case government,
and the unification of the voice category.
Jan Mazur : Teaching the Polish language in Germany against the linguistic and educational policy of the Council of Europe.
The political changes in the 1990s in Europe and the
enlargement of the European Union result in intensified
migration movements. Poles are among the nations who
migrate most actively. Taking this situation into account,
the Council of Europe has developed assumptions of the
linguistic and education policy recommended to the
European Union Member States. The Republic of Poland
has been implementing the recommendations related to
the national minorities living in Poland, including the
German minority, to a large extent. Unfortunately, the
German policy with this respect is not based on the
The Polish language and culture promotion programme in
Germany presented in this paper requires considerable
effort and funds on the part of both Poland and Germany
in the sphere of education.
Agnieszka Mikołajczuk : Genre models of the text written by students during their upper-secondary school final examination (in the context of the planned modernisation of the upper-secondary school final examination in Polish)
In the context of the dispute regarding the need to
modernise the upper-secondary school final examination
in Polish, it is worth considering the criteria for selecting
appropriate genres to be included in the writing part of
this examination. In this paper, the author invokes
answers to the questions about what genre means for
linguistic communication, what relation occurs between
genre and text, what aspects need to be accounted for in
the description of the individual genres, what
circumstances should be taken into consideration with
respect to the specificity of the school- and examinationrelated
situations, and how the genre model affects text
evaluation criteria. The author then presents a proposition
for categorisation of school genres as well as outlines of
selected genre models – an essay (a problem solving essay
and an interpretive essay) and a school sketch (in various
variants) – as the ones that are possible to introduce to
the upper-secondary school final examination in Polish.
Władysław T. Miodunka : The quality of the Polish language used by foreigners. Quality assessment methods on the material of certificate examinations in Polish as a foreign language in 2011.
When briefly presenting the certification system of the
command of Polish as a foreign language which has been
operating since 2004, the author concentrates on
analysing the quality of the Polish language used by the
foreigners taking certificate examinations. In the analysis,
he uses the data from 2011 which have never been
employed for this purpose thus far. In that year, the
examinations were taken by 525 foreigners at three
proficiency levels: B1 (176 persons), B2 (269) and C2 (80).
The author then analyses the quality of the Polish
language used by the foreigners depending on the
proficiency level and the obtained overall grade and
proceeds to discussing the level of command of the
individual skills (listening comprehension, grammatical
correctness, reading comprehension, writing, and
speaking Polish) at each proficiency level. During the
analysis, the author uses the average number of points
obtained by the examinees at the individual levels. In the
final part of this paper, he departs from the averaged data
and presents three selected writing assignments from B2
level, which he subjects to quality assessment, at the
same time presenting their evaluation methods.
Radosław Pawelec : Trouble with lines – about the use of the hyphen and the dash (written in two ways) in the contemporary punctuation and spelling.
In the second half of the 20th century two lines were used
in the Polish editorship: the hyphen, being a short line
without spaces on both sides (-), and the em dash, a long
line with spaces (―). Since the 1990s, under the influence
of the computer programs serving for text editing and
typesetting, the em dash has been replaced with a shorter
line, the en dash (–). The change of the system in the
transition period resulted in the use of various lines in
written texts (as many as three in some) and the situation
has not been fully standardised until now. This refers
particularly to texts written by non-professionals, some of
whom do not even distinguish the individual lines, confuse
one with another, and do not use spaces where necessary
or use spaces where not needed. Since the rules for using
lines are not generally known, being at the same time
complex, the modifications in computer programs
consisting in the simplification in introducing the dash
and the hyphen from the keyboard give some hope for the
improvement of the current situation.
Maciej Malinowski : About difficulties with spelling appositional compounds.
Despite unambiguous normative recommendations related
to spelling noun compounds with coordinate and noncoordinate
elements provided for in the descriptive part of
orthographic dictionaries of Polish, it is still problematic
for a considerable number of users of Polish, including
specialists (authors of academic publications, columnists,
etc.). This is reflected in various errors occurring in texts,
consisting in unjustified insertion of a hyphen between the
non-coordinate elements of a two-element noun (e.g.
prezydent-elekt, słowa-klucze) or its removal from classic
nominal structures with coordinate elements (e.g. wańka
wstańka, ojczyzna polszczyzna, pomnik głaz). In
numerous cases, the cause of such a choice on the part of
authors is their insufficient knowledge about the
applicable rule as well as the semantic aspect of
compound nouns that is at times difficult to determine in
an unambiguous manner and the primacy of one element
over the other. It seems that the discussed issue is worth
devoting more space in dictionaries in the future, i.e.
entries should be accompanied with spelling examples of
Józef Porayski-Pomsta : The French language in “Lalka” by Bolesław Prus.
The paper titled The French language in “Lalka” by
Bolesław Prus presents the function of quotations and
borrowings from French in the novel. In his novel,
Bolesław Prus depicts the role of the French language in
accordance with the reality. This language was a language
of communication in certain circles of the Polish society.
In the fictional aspect, the introduction of French along
with other languages serves the description of the society
in the Warsaw of that time as well as the description of the
characters occurring in “Lalka”. It is also used for
illustrating the atmosphere of Paris. At the same time,
borrowings from French – established in the system
Tadeusz Zgółka : About ideologisation and de-ideologisation of dictionaries.
The issue of ideologisation of definitions is frequently
discussed when evaluating general dictionaries of the
Polish language. Indeed, a certain world view is always
reflected in semantic paraphrases. In order to answer the
question regarding ideologisation of dictionaries in a
competent manner, research on historical and
comparative lexicography needs to be developed. However,
the view that de-ideologisation of a lexicographic definition
is illusion suggests itself.